Introduction to JUnit Framework and Its Usage in Selenium Script – Selenium Tutorial #11

This tutorial will give an insight about JUnit and its usage in selenium script. This is tutorial #11 in our comprehensive Selenium tutorials series.

Basically JUnit is an open source unit testing tool and used to test small/large units of code. To run the JUnit test you don’t have to create class object or define main method. JUnit provide assertion library which is used to evaluate the test result. Annotations of JUnit are used to run the test method. JUnit is also used to run the Automation suite having multiple test cases.

Adding JUnit library in Java project

First we will learn how to add JUnit library in your Java project:

Step #1: Right click on Java project->Build Path->Configure Build path

Step #2: Click Libraries->Add Library

Junit framework Selenium script

Step #3: Click on Junit.

Junit framework Selenium script 2

Step #4: Select Junit4->Finish

Junit framework Selenium script 3

Step #5: Click OK.

Junit framework Selenium script 4

There are many frameworks like Data Driven Framework, Keyword Driven Framework, and Hybrid Framework which use Junit tool as test runner and which will help to start the batch execution and reporting.

JUnit Annotations Used in Selenium scripts

There are many annotations available in Junit. Here we have described few annotations which are used very frequently in Selenium scripts and framework.

#1. @Test

@Test annotation is used to run a Junit test.

Example:

 @Test
public void junitTest()
{
System.out.println("Running Junit test");
Assert.assertEquals(1,1);
} 

How to Run a Junit test:

Navigate to run ->Run as Junit test

#2. @Before:

@Before annotation is used to run any specific test before each test.

 public class Junttest {
@Before
public void beforeTest(){
System.out.println("Running before test");
}

@Test
public void junitTest(){
System.out.println("Running Junit test");
}
} 

Output:
Running before test
Running Junit test

Example of before annotation using two junit test method.

 public class Junttest {
@Before
public void beforeTest(){
System.out.println("Running before test");
}

@Test
public void junitTest(){
System.out.println("Running Junit test");
}

@Test
public void secondJunitTest(){
System.out.println("Running second Junit test");
}
} 

Output:
Running before test
Running Junit test
Running before test
Running second Junit test

Before running junitTest method beforeTest method will run. Similarly before running secondJuntiTest again beforeTest method will run and produces output like above.

#3. @BeforeClass

This method executes once before running all test. The method has to be a static method. Initialization of properties files, databases etc are done in beforeClass method.

------------

 public class Junttest {
@BeforeClass
public static void beforeClassTest(){
System.out.println("Executed before class method");
}

@Test
public void junitTest(){
System.out.println("Running Junit test");
}

@Test
public void secondJunitTest(){
System.out.println("Running second Junit test");
}
} 

Output:
Executed before class method
Running Junit test
Running second Junit test

#4. @After

This method executes after each test.

 public class Junttest {
@Test
public void junitTest(){
System.out.println("Running Junit test");
}

@After
public void afterTest(){
System.out.println("Running after method");
}
} 

Output:
Running Junit test
Running after method

#5. @AfterClass

Like @BeforeClass, @AfterClass executes once after executing all test methods. Like @BeforeClass method, @AfterClass method has to be a static method.

 public class Junttest {

@Test
public void junitTest(){
System.out.println("Running Junit test");
}

@Test
public void secondJunitTest(){
System.out.println("Running second Junit test");
}

@AfterClass
Public static void afterClassTest(){
System.out.println("Running afterclass method");
}
} 

Output:
Running Junit test
Running second Junit test
Running afterclass method

Junit assertions are used to validate certain condition and stops execution of program if the conditions are not satisfied.

#6. Parameterized Junit class:

Parameterized class is used to run same scenario with multiple dataset.

Below is the example to pass multiple parameters in a Junit test.

@Parameters annotation tag is used to pass multiple data. Here, we have taken 2*2 dimensional array and the data can be visualized like below:

Junit framework Selenium script 5

 @RunWith(Parameterized.class)
public class Junttest {
public String name;
public int age;
public Junttest(String name,int age){
this.name=name;
this.age=age;
}

@Test
public void testMethod(){
System.out.println("Name is: "+name +" and age is: "+age);
}

@Parameters
public static Collection<Object[]> parameter(){
Object[][] pData=new Object[2][2];
pData[0][0]="Tom";
pData[0][1]=30;
pData[1][0]="Harry";
pData[1][1]=40;
return Arrays.asList(pData);
}
} 

JUnit Assertions

JUnit assertEquals: This checks if the two values are equal and assertion fails if both values are not equal.

This compares Boolean, int, String, float, long, char etc.

Syntax:
Assert.assertEqual(“excepted value”, ”actual value”);

Example:
Assert.assertEqual(“ABC”,”ABC”); //Both the strings are equal and assertion will pass.
Assert.assertEqual(“ABC”,”DEF”); //Assertion will fail as both the strings are not equal.
Assert.assertEqual(“Strings are not equal”, “ABC”,”DEF”); //message will be thrown if equal condition is not satisfied.

Below is the example of use of JUnit assertion in selenium:

 String username=driver.findElement(By.id(“username”)).getText();
String password=driver.findElement(By.id(“password”)).getText();
Assert.assertEqual(“Mismatch in both the string”, username, password); 

In above example assertion will fail as both the strings are not equal. One is text of username field and other is the text of password field.

JUnit assertTrue: Returns true if the condition is true and assertion fails if the condition is false.
Assert.assertTrue(“message”, condition);
Assert.assertTrue(“Both the strings are not equal”, (“HelloWorld”).equals(“HelloWorld”));

Here assertion will pass as both the strings match. It will print message if the assertion fails.

JUnit assertFalse: Returns true if the condition is false and assertion fails if the condition is true.
Assert.assertFalse(“message”, condition);
Assert.assertFalse(“Both the strings are equal”, (“Hello”).equals(“HelloWorld”));

There will not be any assertion error as the condition is false.

Conclusion:

Most of the programmers use Junit as it is easy and does not take much effort to test. A simple green or red bar will show the actual result of the test. Junit makes life easy as it has its own set of libraries and annotations. Here we have also described commonly used annotations used with selenium scripts and framework.

More detail about framework and use of Junit annotations will be discussed in upcoming tutorial which is dedicated exclusively for framework design using Junit. This tutorial will help us in designing the framework using Junit.

Next Tutorial #12: In next tutorial we would discuss all about TestNG, its features and its applications. TestNG is an advance framework designed in a way to leverage the benefits by both the developers and testers.




15 comments ↓

#1 Supriya

thanks for junit tutorial. can we have other frameworks info as well?

#2 Rahul

Hi Shruti, I have two questions:

1. Whenever I am running the @BeforeClass annotation, the second junit class runs before the first class.
Instead of this :

Executed before class method
Running Junit test
Running second Junit test

I get this :

Executed before class method
Running second Junit test
Running Junit test

Why did it happen?

Secondly, I am getting an initialization error if I run the parameterized example.

#3 Bhavesh

Hi Testing Team,
can you explain Parameterized Junit class example in details with list of package that are used in program.

#4 Hui

Thank you for the tutorial. It helps me a lot.
I ran the JunitTest and got the result like this:
Running before test
Running second Junit test
Running before test
Running Junit test

#5 surendra

Hi All ,
I Ran Jnuit frame frame is working.but i have one small doubt how to pass the import the parameters Excel file in to junit.

#6 Raushan

hello all,
really very helpful website.
can you please explain bit more “#6. Parameterized Junit class”.
not understand clearly.

#7 Sahir

@Rahul :
Answer for your first question:
The results are displayed randomly, if you want the results to appear as you want it, then user the “priority”
eg:
public class Junttest {

@BeforeClass
public static void beforeClassTest(){
System.out.println(“Executed before class method”);

}

@Test(priority=1)
public void junitTest(){
System.out.println(“Running Junit test”);

}

@Test(priority=2)
public void secondJunitTest(){
System.out.println(“Running second Junit test”);

}

}

In the above eg, the output would be :
Executed before class method
Running Junit test
Running second Junit test

#8 Kanimozhi

Really Very Nice Site To learn Selenium..!! Great Job..!! Thanks a Lot..!!

#9 Gaurav Khurana

Please share some more details for the parametrised class used. Though we are able to implement it,

But it would be great if you can share more details.

Small typo are
Assert.assertEqual –> should be Equals (s is missing)
Assert.assertEqual(“excepted value”, ”actual value”);

#10 Olufemi Ade-Olusile

The test is wrong with the parameterized.class.. you cant pass an object array into a string and int.. It will fail. the type has to be the same. Either int and int.. or string and string.

#11 Umamaheswar

@RunWith(Parameterized.class) = showing error here
Multiple markers at this line
– Type mismatch: cannot convert from Class to Class

When tried to run
Initilizationerror
java.lang.Exception: Custom runner class Parameterized should have a public constructor with signature Parameterized(Class testClass)
at org.junit.runners.model.InitializationError.(InitializationError.java:38)
at org.junit.internal.builders.AnnotatedBuilder.buildRunner(AnnotatedBuilder.java:111)
at org.junit.internal.builders.AnnotatedBuilder.runnerForClass(AnnotatedBuilder.java:86)
at org.junit.runners.model.RunnerBuilder.safeRunnerForClass(RunnerBuilder.java:59)
at org.junit.internal.builders.AllDefaultPossibilitiesBuilder.runnerForClass(AllDefaultPossibilitiesBuilder.java:26)
at org.junit.runners.model.RunnerBuilder.safeRunnerForClass(RunnerBuilder.java:59)
at org.junit.internal.requests.ClassRequest.getRunner(ClassRequest.java:33)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestLoader.createUnfilteredTest(JUnit4TestLoader.java:84)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestLoader.createTest(JUnit4TestLoader.java:70)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestLoader.loadTests(JUnit4TestLoader.java:43)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:444)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:675)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:382)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:192)

Could you please tell us how to resolve this

#12 Siyan

I am new to selenium and followed all the tutorials till chapter 10 with ease. But NOT able to understand this tutorial chapter11. I did the add library part. NOt sure about next steps as it is not clear and you have direclty started Annotations with no information about if it needs to be added to new program or the programs you have described in previous chapters. It would have been nice if you could provide complete program (with import required ) for the program and all in this tutorial. I am getting error while I m trying the above. Please help

#13 Rajeev

Sahir,
I think you have mentioned priority for TestNG framework.

Can anyone kindly help me with prioritizing tests in Junit ?

#14 bharani

more information related to Parameterized

#15 ragu

Please explain the code level details for parameterization example. also explain the collection and objects

Leave a Comment