TestNG Tutorial: Introduction to TestNG Framework

This TestNG Tutorial Explains the TestNG Framework Along with its Features, Benefits, and Advantages Over the JUnit Framework:

This tutorial will introduce you to the concept of Automation Framework, its benefits, and its types that are in use in the testing world.

Along with the Automation Framework, we will also discuss one of the most important topics i.e. TestNG Testing Framework.

Let’s Start!!

TestNG Tutorial

List Of All TestNG Tutorials In This Series

Tutorial #1: Introduction to TestNG Framework 
Tutorial #2: TestNG Installation
Tutorial #3: TestNG Annotations and Listeners
Tutorial #4: TestNG Example
Tutorial #5: Integration Of Maven With TestNG Using Maven Surefire Plugin
Tutorial #6: TestNG Process Execution: Batch, Controlled Batch & Parallel

Overview Of Tutorials In TestNG Series

Tutorial_NumWhat You Will Learn
Tutorial #1TestNG Tutorial Introduction to TestNG Framework

This TestNG tutorial explains TestNG framework along with its features, benefits and advantages over the JUnit Framework.
Tutorial #2TestNG Installation

TestNG Installation is covered in detail here. We will also run a basic TestNG program and see what reports can be generated post-test run in TestNG.
Tutorial #3TestNG Annotations and Listeners

This tutorial explains different types of TestNG Annotations and Listeners. You will also learn how to use the TestNG Annotations & Listeners with examples.
Tutorial #4TestNG Example

Learn How to Create TestNG.xml File with the help of TestNG Example. Many tasks can be done simultaneously with the TestNG.xml file.
Tutorial #5Integration Of Maven With TestNG Using Maven Surefire Plugin

This tutorial explains How to use the Maven Surefire Plugin to Manage our Dependencies and Select & Execute Particular Test Scripts or Suites using TestNG.
Tutorial #6TestNG Process Execution: Batch, Controlled Batch & Parallel

This tutorial explains various types of execution processes in TestNG i.e. Batch Execution, Controlled Batch, Test Execution Report and Parallel Execution.

Introduction To Automation Framework

A framework is a set of rules or guidelines like Coding standards, Test data handling, etc. that the testing world follows in a systematic manner during Automation scripting to achieve the best output or results. It comprises of best practices and tools that help the QA professionals to test and achieve more efficient results.

Testing frameworks are an essential part of any successful automation testing process as they help in reducing the Maintenance costs, Testing efforts, Code reusability and many other things to achieve. Here we can achieve the best of Return on Investment (ROI) by showcasing it to the client along with the benefits that we are achieving.

Benefits of Automation Framework

The major benefits include:

  1. Increase the Testing team’s speed and efficiency.
  2. Improve the Testing team’s Accuracy.
  3. Reducing Test maintenance costs.
  4. Maximum test coverage.
  5. Code reusability.

Types Of Automation Framework

It is very important to choose the type of framework while chalking out the test plan. Enlisted below are the most common types of test automation frameworks.

  1. Linear Automation Framework: Record and playback framework, no coding is required.
  2. Modular Based Testing Framework: Application is divided into individual modules and then tested separately. These modules are then combined to build larger tests.
  3. Data-Driven Testing Framework: Here, test data is stored externally in the form of Excel spreadsheets, Text files, CSV files, etc. Test scripts are connected to these files and the application is tested using these files multiple times with different test data sets.
  4. Keyword-Drive Testing Framework: This framework utilizes data tables and self-descriptive keywords that are also stored in the external files. Keywords represent various actions like click, login, etc. Keywords are stored in a sequential manner with the required object and testing is done accordingly.
  5. Hybrid Test Automation Framework: This framework is a combination of one or more frameworks mentioned above.

What Is TestNG?

Test Automation Framework

It is a Test Automation Framework for Java, inspired by JUnit and NUnit with new introductory functionalities that make it more powerful and easier to use. NG means Next Generation. It is an open-source and free tool.

It is designed to cover all the categories of testing like Unit Testing, Functional Testing, End to End Testing, Regression Testing, Integration Testing, etc. TestNG supports both Android as well as IOS Applications.

Features Of TestNG

Enlisted below are the most prominent features of TestNG:

  • Annotations: Multiple Annotations that provide powerful mechanisms to aid your automation scripts.
  • Support for Data-Driven Testing using @ Data Provider Annotations.
  • Supports a no. of Parameters.
  • Generation of Automatic Reports which Selenium can’t do by itself.
  • It can run only the failed test case while there isn’t a need to run the whole test suite in case of test failures.
  • Supports a variety of tools and plug-Ins like Maven, Jenkins, etc.
  • Flexibility in test configurations.
  • It provides a powerful execution model.
  • Dependent methods are useful for Application server testing.
  • Default JDK functions for runtime and logging (no more dependencies).

TestNG Framework

Advantages Of TestNG Over JUnit

Both JUnit and TestNG are very popular in the test framework in Java. Both frameworks have similarities in their functionalities. However, TestNG has more features over JUnit and that indeed has made it very easy to use.

TestNG vs JUnit

Let’s discuss the advantages of TestNG over JUnit.

  • Grouping: Using TestNG, we can perform a lot of complex automation testing because of its ability to group test cases and execute the groups. However, in JUnit, we cannot perform Group Tests.
  • Extend Classes: In TestNG, we don’t need to extend any classes. In JUnit, we have to use extend classes.
  • Mandatory Annotations: In TestNG, there are no constraints for any type of mandatory annotations. Whereas, in JUnit, we have to use mandatory annotations like @BeforeClass and @AfterClass.
  • Wider Range of Annotations: TestNG has a wider range of Annotations support like @Before/After Suite, @Before/After Test, @Before/After Groups. JUnit has only a few annotations.
  • Dependency Test: In TestNG, we can use the “dependsOnMethods” to perform the dependency test. However, JUnit doesn’t support this feature.
  • Parallel Test Execution: In TestNG, we can perform parallel test execution if run through XML. However, JUnit doesn’t support this feature.
  • Parameterized Tests: TestNG’s parameterized tests are very user-friendly and flexible in nature as we can provide the values either in the XML file or inside the class. JUnit has many limitations while using this feature.
  • Test Order: TestNG is better than JUnit when test execution is done in a specific order. Methods with lower priority value will be executed first.
  • Listeners: TestNG supports various types of listeners and can be used by adding annotations. There is no mechanism in JUnit to add listeners using annotations.
  • HTML Reports: TestNG has rich HTML report generations for its test cases. It generates three types of reports i.e. Console output, HTML Report, and Index.html. However, JUnit does not create HTML Reports of its own. We have to use the ANT tool for the same.

Suggested reading => JUnit Vs TestNG – Know the differences

Note: While comparing both the frameworks, it is recommended to use TestNG as it’s more flexible and compatible to use. TestNG is more advanced in terms of Parameterization, Dependency testing, and Grouping concepts. TestNG can be used for high-level testing and complex integration testing.


We have discussed the different frameworks in detail here. We made a thorough study of TestNG, its advantages, benefits, and features over the JUnit Framework.

Our upcoming tutorial in this series explains TestNG Installation, our first test case in TestNG, configurations and few annotations that make a basic TestNG test case along with the type of reports that generate post-execution of a test case.

=> Visit Here To Learn TestNG From Scratch.