After several frequent requests from STH readers, today we are finally launching our FREE Selenium Tutorial series. In this Selenium training series, we will cover all Selenium testing concepts and its packages in detail with easy to understand practical examples.
These Selenium tutorials are helpful for beginners to advanced level Selenium users. Starting from the very basic Selenium concepts tutorial, we will gradually move on to the advanced topics like Framework creation, Selenium Grid, and Cucumber BDD.
Note: We will be increasing our article posting frequency for this series. Please don't miss any tutorial. Keep a track of all the tutorials by bookmarking this page as we will keep updating it with the links to all new Selenium tutorials.
What You Will Learn:
- List of Selenium Online Training Tutorials
- Selenium Introduction
- Why Selenium?
- First Glance at Selenium
- Selenium Components
- Brief Introduction to Selenium Tools
- Environment and Technology Stack
- Recommended Reading
All Selenium Training Tutorials are listed below for your handy reference.
List of Selenium Online Training Tutorials
- Tutorial #1 – Selenium Testing Introduction (Must Read)
- Tutorial #2 – Selenium IDE Features, Selenium Download, and installation
- Tutorial #3 – My first Selenium IDE script (Must Read)
- Tutorial #4 – Creating script using Firebug and its installation
- Tutorial #5 – Locator Types: ID, ClassName, Name, Link Text, Xpath
- Tutorial #6 – Locator Types: CSS Selector
- Tutorial #7 – Locating elements in Google Chrome and IE
- Tutorial #8 – Selenium WebDriver Introduction (Must Read)
- Tutorial #9 – Selenium WebDriver Installation with eclipse
- Tutorial #10 – My first Selenium WebDriver script (Must Read)
- Tutorial #11 – Introduction to JUnit
- Tutorial #12 – Introduction to TestNG (Must Read)
- Tutorial #13 – Handling Drop-downs
- Tutorial #14 – Looping and Conditional commands
- Tutorial #15 – Explicit and Implicit Waits
- Tutorial #16 – Handling Alerts/popups
- Tutorial #17 – Commonly used commands
- Tutorial #18 – Handling Web Tables, Frames, Dynamic Elements
- Tutorial #19 – Exception Handling
- Tutorial #20 – Most popular Test Automation frameworks (Must Read)
- Tutorial #21 – Selenium Framework Creation & Accessing Test Data from Excel (Must Read)
- Tutorial #22 – Creating Generics and Testsuite
- Tutorial #23 – Using Apache ANT
- Tutorial #24 – Setting up Selenium Maven Project
- Tutorial #25 – Using Hudson Continuous integration tool
- Tutorial #26 – Logging in Selenium
- Tutorial #27 – Selenium Scripting Tips and Tricks
- Tutorial #28 – Database Testing using Selenium WebDriver
- Tutorial #29 – Selenium Grid Introduction (Must Read)
- Tutorial #30 – Automation Testing Using Cucumber and Selenium Part -1
- Tutorial #31 – Integration of Selenium WebDriver with Cucumber Part -2
Selenium Tips and Interview Preparation:
- Tutorial #32 – Selenium project test effort estimation
- Tutorial #33 – Selenium Interview Questions and Answers
How to start Learning Selenium?
This is the best time to start learning Selenium testing by your own with the help of this free Selenium Training series. Read tutorials, practice examples at your home, and put your queries in the comment section of the respective tutorials. We will address all of these queries.
Experienced Selenium professionals – you too can take part in this series by providing answers to the reader's queries in comments.
This is one of our serious effort to help you learn and master one of the most popular software testing tools!
We are much delighted to launch our yet another series of software testing training tutorials. The belief behind introducing this tutorial is to make you an expert in one of the widely used software test automation solution, Selenium.
In this series, we will look at the various facets of Selenium. Selenium is not just a tool, it is a cluster of independent tools. We will look into some of the Selenium tools in detail with practical examples wherever applicable.
Before you jump into reading this exciting and useful series, let us take a look at what it has got in store for you.
The current industry trends have shown that there is a mass movement towards automation testing. Hence a cluster of repetitive manual testing scenarios has raised a demand to bring in the practice of automating these manual scenarios.
There are several Benefits of implementing Automation Test; let's take a look at them:
- Supports execution of repeated Test Cases
- Aids in testing a large Test Matrix
- Enables parallel execution
- Encourages unattended execution
- Improves accuracy thereby reducing human-generated errors
- Saves time and money
All these benefits result in the following:
- High ROI
- Faster GoTo market
There are several Automation testing benefits which are well understood and largely talked about in the software testing industry.
One of the most commonly asked questions that come with this are –
- What is the best tool for me to get my tests automated?
- Is there a cost involved in it?
- Is it easy to adapt?
One of the best answers to all the above questions for automating web-based applications is Selenium. Because:
- It’s an open source
- It has a large user base and helping communities
- It has multi-browser and platform compatibility
- It has active repository developments
- It supports multiple language implementations
First Glance at Selenium
Selenium is one of the most popular Automated Testing suites. Selenium is designed in such a way to support and encourage Automation Testing of functional aspects of web-based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.
Selenium supports a broad range of browsers, technologies, and platforms.
(Click on image for enlarged view)
Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, its rather a package of several testing tools, hence it is referred as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.
The suite package constitutes of the following set of tools:
- Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
- Selenium Remote Control (RC)
- Selenium WebDriver
- Selenium Grid
Selenium RC and WebDriver, combined together are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.
Brief Introduction to Selenium Tools
Selenium is a result of the continuous efforts by an engineer named Jason Huggins from ThoughtWorks. Being responsible for the testing of an internal Time and Expenses application, he realized the need for an automation testing tool in order to get rid of repetitive manual tasks without compromising the quality and accuracy.
Henceforth, Jason started demoing the tool to a vast audience. Eventually, the discussions were laid out to categorize this tool in an open source category and its potential to grow as a re-usable testing framework for other web-based applications.
The tool was later acclaimed with the name “Selenium Core”.
Selenium IDE (Selenium Integrated Development Environment)
Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback features make it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. With several advantages, a few disadvantages accompanied Selenium IDE, thus making it inappropriate to be used in case of more advanced test scripts.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Selenium IDE:
The disadvantages of IDE are really not disadvantages of Selenium, in reality. Rather they are just limitations to what IDE could achieve. These limitations can be overcome by using Selenium RC or WebDriver.
Selenium RC (Selenium Remote Control)
Selenium RC is a tool written in Java to allow a user to construct test scripts for a web-based application in any programming language he/she chooses. Selenium RC came as a result to overcome the various disadvantages incurred by Selenium IDE or Core.
Loopholes and restrictions which were imposed while using Selenium Core made it difficult for the user to leverage the benefits of the tool to its totality. Thus it made the testing process a cumbersome and a far-reaching task.
One of the crucial restrictions was Same Origin Policy.
Problem With Same Origin Policy:
The problem with Same Origin Policy is, it disallows to access the DOM of a document from an origin that is different from the origin we are trying to access the document.
Origin is a sequential combination of scheme, host, and port of the URL. For example, for the URL http://www.seleniumhq.org/projects/, the origin is a combination of HTTP, seleniumhq.org, 80 correspondingly.
Thus, to test any application using Selenium Core, one has to install the entire application on the Selenium Core as well as a web server to overcome the problem of same origin policy.
So, In order to govern the same origin policy without the need of making a separate copy of Application under test on the Selenium Core, Selenium Remote Control was introduced. While Jason Huggins was demoing Selenium, another fellow colleague at ThoughtWorks named Paul Hammant suggested a workaround of same origin policy and a tool that can be wired up with a programming language of our choice. Thus Selenium RC came into existence.
Unlike Selenium IDE, Selenium RC supports a wide range of browsers and platforms.
- The user creates a test script in the desired programming language.
- For every programming language, there is a designated client library.
- Client library deports the test commands to the selenium server.
- Browser executes the commands using Selenium Core and sends the results back to the Selenium server
- Selenium server delivers the test results to the client library.
There are a few pre-requisites to be in place before creating Selenium RC scripts:
- A Programming Language – Java, C#, Python etc.
- An Integrated Development Environment –Eclipse, Netbeans etc.
- A Testing Framework (optional) – JUnit, TestNG etc.
- And Selenium RC setup off course
Advantages and Disadvantages of Selenium RC:
Please refer the following figure to more about the advantages and disadvantages of Selenium RC.
(Click on image for enlarged view)
With selenium RC, the life of a tester has always been positive and favourable until the emerging trends raised a demand to execute the same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably. Thus, catering these requirements Selenium Grid was brought into the picture.
Selenium Grid was introduced by Pat Lightbody in order to address the need for executing the test suites on multiple platforms simultaneously.
WebDriver is clean and purely an object-oriented framework. It utilizes the browser’s native compatibility to automation without using any peripheral entity. With the increasing demand, it has gained a large popularity and user-base.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Selenium WebDriver:
Refer the following figure for more information about the advantages and disadvantages of WebDriver.
(Click on image for enlarged view)
Selenium 3 is an advanced version of Selenium 2. It is a tool which is focused on automation of mobile and web applications. Stating that it supports mobile testing, we mean to say that the WebDriver API has been extended to address the needs of mobile application testing. The tool is expected to be launched soon in the market.
Environment and Technology Stack
With the advent and addition of each new tool in the Selenium suite, environments and technologies become more compatible. Here is an exhaustive list of environments and technologies supported by Selenium Tools.
Supported Programming Languages
Supported Operating Systems
Supported Testing Frameworks
In this tutorial, we tried to make you acquainted with the Selenium suite describing its various components, usages, and their advantages over each other.
Here are the cruxes of this article.
- Selenium is a suite of several automated testing tools, each of them catering to different testing needs.
- All these tools fall under the same umbrella of an open source category and support only web-based testing.
- Selenium suite is comprised of 4 basic components; Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, WebDriver, and Selenium Grid.
- The user is expected to choose wisely the right Selenium tool for his/her needs.
- Selenium IDE is distributed as a Firefox plug-in and it is easier to install and use. The user is not required to possess prior programming knowledge. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naive user.
- Selenium RC is a server that allows a user to create test scripts in the desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
- Selenium Grid brings out an additional feature to Selenium RC by distributing its test script on different platforms and browsers at the same time for execution, thus implementing the master-slave architecture.
- WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. The fusion of Selenium RC and WebDriver is also known as Selenium 2. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
- Selenium 3 is the most anticipated inclusion in the Selenium suite which is yet to be launched in the market. Selenium 3 strongly encourages mobile testing.
In the next tutorial, we would be discussing the basics of Selenium IDE, its installation, and the features. We would also have a look at the basic terminologies and nomenclatures of Selenium IDE.
Next Selenium Tutorial: Introduction to Selenium IDE and its installation with detailed study on all the features of Selenium IDE (coming soon)
A remark for the readers: Our next tutorial of the Selenium training series is in the processing mode, meanwhile you can explore a bit about the Selenium suite and its tools by looking at its official website.
About the authors:
Shruti Shrivastava (our main author for this series), Amaresh Dhal, and Pallavi Sharma are helping us to bring this series to our readers.
Shruti is currently working as a Senior Test Engineer with 4+ years of automation testing experience. She is an ISTQB certified professional and also an active blogger, always interested in solving testing-related problems.
Amaresh is having 5+ years of manual and automation testing experience with expertise in WebDriver, Grid, and frameworks.
Pallavi Sharma has 7+ years rich experience of working in automation testing field with hands-on Selenium and JAVA experience.
Stay tuned and share your views, comments, and knowledge to help us, groom. Also, let us know if you think that we missed out something so that we can include them in our subsequent tutorials.