Scriptless Test Automation Framework: Tools and Examples

All You Need to Know About Codeless or Scriptless Test Automation Frameworks and the Best Tools. List of Top & Most Popular Scriptless Test Automation Tools For Mobiles with Features and Comparison:

This article will give you a complete overview of the Scriptless Automation Framework in simple terms.

The design goals, Implementation requirements, Benefits & Myths of Scriptless Automation are explained with perfect examples for your easy understanding.

While concluding this article, you will get a good insight into all the answers to the “why”, “what”, “when”, and “how” questions related to this framework.

Scriptless Test Automation Framework

Scriptless Test Automation Framework

Levels of Automation

Take a quick look at the levels of automation before diving deep into the codeless Test Automation Framework.

#1) Scripting/Coding

As the name itself suggests, this requires creating a program/software to automate tests or processes.

Example: If you have to perform unit testing of a particular function or a class, then you would need to create test programs to test your function or class. There is no way to automate your unit’s tests without coding.

In general, if an automation tool or framework mandates the testers to create a code or script to provide test input, execution, and reporting of automated tests, then such tools are categorized at this level.

#2) Scriptless

At this level, you do not need any coding or scripting knowledge to create automated tests. However, as a framework, it is a good practice to provide the capability of customization.

For advanced users, customization can be done by writing their own code to cover some unique test scenarios.

#3) Advanced Automation using Artificial Intelligence (AI)

These are the highest levels of automation that can be achieved:

  • Create test scripts from test case documents (probably using Natural Language Processing technology).
  • Auto-correct test scripts based on application changes for effective regression testing.
  • Auto-generate test scripts based on the user actions/use cases on the application under test. This is an advanced version of the traditional recording and playback feature.
  • Auto-validation of test results based on machine learning without user inputs on what needs to be validated and test analytics.

Introduction to Scriptless Test Automation

In this article, we will be focusing on level-2 automation which is Scriptless.

Before that, let’s look at the list of some of the top Scriptless Automation Tools.

General Features for Scriptless Platforms

Traditionally, Automated Testing requires complex script development, often requiring strong engineering skill sets. Moreover, these test scripts tend to be “brittle” i.e. they break as the app changes, or as the app executes on different devices.

This is the appeal of Scriptless automation platforms. They offer organizations a low-complex and cost-effective opportunity to harness the power of Automated Testing without the associated complexity or cost of script development.

Thus, it is imperative while selecting a mobile Scriptless Automation platform to ensure that:

  • Test scripts can be created in an intuitive “no-code” manner.
  • Test scripts can execute on a broad array of devices and operating systems without breaking
  • Test scripts can be exported to an open standard (e.g. Appium) to prevent vendor lock-in.

Market Trends: According to Kobiton, 36% of organizations have spent over $100000 on testing mobile apps last year. This survey with the QA organizations on Mobile App Testing says 84% of testing organizations trust that testing on the real device will give them a better success rate than using an emulator or simulator.

Expert Advice: While evaluating Scriptless Test Automation platforms, the factors to be considered include Deployment options (public cloud, private cloud, on-premises), Supported platforms, Testing on real-devices, Automation Testing support (Selenium or Appium), Script Customization, and Cost. The tool should have less maintenance, easy configuration, and should be able to give improved efficiency. The tool should be selected by considering your business requirements.
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Best Scriptless Test Automation Tools

Comparison of Best Scriptless Platforms for Mobile App Testing

DeploymentAutomated TestingPlatform Free TrialPrice

On-premise & Cloud-based.Can be integrated with Selenium, Jenkins, etc. Windows & Web-basedAvailableThe price starts at $30/user/month.

Cloud-hosted and On-premise.Appium & Selenium frameworks.The test can be run on multiple devices.AvailableIt starts at $50 per month.
Cerberus Testing

Cloud-basedSelenium, Appium, etc.Web applicationAvailableFree plan, The price starts at 199 Euro.

TestComplete New Logo
On-premiseAutomated UI test for all applications.Windows XP Professional 32/64 bit. AvailableDepends on the license type.
Avo Assure

Assure Logo
Can be installed on-premise or deployed as a cloud hosted solution.100% automated testingCross-platformAvailableTiered Pricing. Request a Quote.

TestGrid Logo
Cloud-based and On-premise.Scriptless automation on web and real devices.Remotely accessible infrastructure (browser & device cloud)Free plan availableIt starts at $39/month.
Zap Test

Cloud-based.--Cross-platformAvailableGet a quote.
Selenium IDE

Cloud HostedSeleniumWindows, Mac, and Linux.--Free

Let’s Explore!!

The top tools that fall under this category are stated below for your reference.



Simple to use, powerful AI-driven test automation platform.

ACCELQ is the only cloud-based continuous testing platform that seamlessly automates API and web testing without writing a single line of code. IT teams of all sizes use accelQ to accelerate their testing by automating critical aspects of the lifecycle like test design, planning, test generation, and execution.

Also read =>> AccelQ Review

accelQ customers typically save over 70% of the cost involved in the change & maintenance efforts in testing, addressing one of the major pain points in the industry. accelQ makes this possible with an AI-powered core to bring self-healing automation amongst other unique capabilities.

The focus on design and user experience is at the heart of accelQs continuous innovative approach with a relentless effort to accelerate testing and improve delivered Quality for its customers.

Key Capabilities:

  • Visual application modelling for design and lifecycle automation.
  • Codeless API and UI automation in the same flow.
  • Automated test case generation and data planning.
  • In-sprint automation with multiple abstraction layers.
  • Built-in test management and planning capabilities.
  • Seamless CI/CD and Jira/ALM integration with natural traceability.
  • Ability to self-heal with runtime analytics engines for robust automation.
  • No vendor lock or extendible framework open-source aligned.

#2) Kobiton

Kobiton Dashboard

Kobiton scriptless test automation is the fastest way to do mobile test automation. This intelligent test automation platform has functionalities for creating and executing scriptless automation on any device.

Perform manual testing on one device, and Kobiton’s AI testing framework can automatically execute the same test over other real devices and in the background.

100% Appium code can be generated with this platform. Kobiton provides a solution for flaky test scripts through Appium Anywhere.

Key Features:

  • Automatic test case generation from the manual session.
  • App functionality can be tested manually on iOS and Android devices.
  • AI-based assertions & remediations feature will make it easier to execute the new automated scripts over a lot of devices.
  • Automated crash detection feature.
  • Kobiton DDT helps with the easy addition of data and parameters and seamlessly executes the tests with optimal test coverage.

#3) Cerberus Testing


Cerberus Testing is the only 100% open-source and low-code test automation platform supporting Web, Mobile, API (REST, Kafka), Desktop, and Database testing. Available in the Cloud, the easy-to-use web interface does not require development skills – automated tests become available for the development, quality, and business teams.


Key Features:

  • Ease of use web interface accessible to transversal teams.
  • Low-code test library for Web, Mobile, API, Desktop, Database.
  • Reusable test modules, components, and test data.
  • Fast iterations between Test Repository, Execution, and Reporting.
  • Parallel Execution on local and remote testing farms.
  • Continuous Testing with Scheduler, Campaign and CI/CD capabilities.
  • Support for Web Performance and Monitoring.
  • Built-in Test Dashboards and Analytics.

Source code: Open source

#4) TestComplete

TestComplete New Logo

TestComplete is a scriptless GUI test automation tool that tests every desktop, web, and mobile application. Create a test Deliver the quality of your application with incredible scale and efficiency.

Key Features:

  • Create and run functional UI tests without writing a single line of code using record & playback.
  • Superior object recognition, using machine learning and AI, identifies complex objects.
  • Support for testing enterprise applications such as SAP, Oracle EBS, and Salesforce.
  • Easily build and execute modular test scripts for reuse across projects and environments to expand test coverage.
  • AI-powered self-healing tests automatically detect unexpected errors due to dynamic properties, saving time spent on test maintenance.

#5) Avo Assure

Assure Logo

Avo Assure is an intelligent and technology-agnostic solution that offers over 90% automation coverage without writing a single line of code.

Being heterogeneous, it enables both technical and business users to test across multiple platforms like web, mobile, desktop, ERP applications, mainframes, and more by autogenerating test cases. These capabilities empower teams to test more in less time and deliver high-quality software.

Key Features

  • Create and execute test cases through a 100% no-code approach. The intuitive UI further simplifies the testing efforts.
  • Execute test cases for web, Windows, mobile platforms (Android and IOS), non-UI (web services, batch jobs), ERPs, Mainframe systems, and associated emulators through one solution.
  • Enable accessibility testing for your applications with a single click of a button. It supports WCAG standards, Section 508, and ARIA.
  • Visualize your entire testing hierarchy, define test plans, and design test cases through the Mindmaps feature.
  • Decrease testing time and effort with SAP test Accelerator pack, specifically designed for SAP with 100’s of pre-built test cases.
  • Through the smart scheduling and execution feature, execute multiple scenarios in a single VM independently or in parallel.
  • Leverage integrations with SDLC and CI systems like Jira, Sauce Labs, ALM, TFS, Jenkins, QTest, and more. It also integrates thoroughly with our process discovery solution, Avo Discover – which helps you to document the processes with a no-code approach.
  • Avo Assure can be hosted on Linux as well.
  • Get a video of the test execution and a screenshot of each step through intelligent reporting.

#6) – Testing your mobile applications and website has never been easier. With the TestGrid platform, users can perform both manual and automated testing of their mobile applications on real devices hosted on the cloud or on your premise in a scriptless manner allowing them to save time & focus efforts where they need to.

The TestGrid platform helps your testing and business teams build and execute test cases without any pre-requisites of programming knowledge. With TestGrid, users don’t even have to worry about rewriting different test cases but reuse almost all the tests on different versions of the app and on other apps as well. Start with a free plan and upgrade at as low as $39/mo.


  • Scriptless mobile app & website automation testing that can generate downloadable Appium, and XCUITest code.
  • AI-based no code automation
  • Performance testing to help you optimize & improve your app.
  • Reuse already written test cases on multiple apps.
  • Test in parallel for faster test execution and go-to-market launch.
  • Available both on-cloud and on-premise.
  • Integrate with your favorite CI/CD tool for continuous testing.

#7) ZapTest

Best for Small to Large Businesses or Start-Ups.
Price: Get a quote for its pricing details.

Zap Test

ZapTest is an Enterprise Solution that optimizes your test automation through less scripting, auto-documentation, and parallel execution. It supports VB Script and JavaScript. You can test any UI or API interface.


  • The script generated through this platform can be used for a computer, phone, or tablet.
  • It can be used for UI and API test automation.
  • Test documentation will get auto-generated.
  • Test scripts can be created for live applications, mockups, video scenarios, and textual references.

Verdict: This tool will allow you to run scripts automatically in all test environments simultaneously. This will streamline your test automation through video scenarios and textual references.

Website: ZapTest

#8) Selenium IDE

Best for Startups and Freelancers.
Price: Selenium IDE is free and open-source.


Selenium IDE is an open-source tool for Test Automation. It works through records and playback. It is used as a plugin for Chrome and Firefox browsers. It supports cross-browser execution using Command-line Runner for Selenium IDE.

It has the capability to record multiple locators for each element that it interacts with. Test cases you create in Selenium IDE will be reusable.


  • It supports control flow structures such as if, while, and times.
  • The tool is expandable through plugins.
  • This will allow you to create a test suite.
  • It will also allow you to customize the test script.

Verdict: Selenium IDE works on record-and-play-back functionality. Though the tool has limited functionalities, it can be a perfect basic scriptless Test Automation Tool.

Website: Selenium IDE

#9) Ranorex Studio


Ranorex Studio includes a complete set of scriptless test automation tools for desktop, website and mobile app testing. Automate tests in half the time of other approaches.


Key features include: 

  • Ranorex Recorder: Capture every interaction with your application. Pause and resume recording, edit steps, and add validation actions, right in the capture window. 
  • Ranorex Spy: Identify UI elements with a single click, then drag and drop them into your test case. Ranorex Studio automatically handles all dynamic web elements.
  • Action Editor: Edit recorded steps, add validations, specify conditions for execution (IF statements), and use data from an Excel file or a database – all without coding. 
  • Build-in Selenium WebDriver. Execute cross-browser tests on WebDriver endpoints, local Selenium Grid or a cloud-based provider.
  • Built-in Test Run Report and video reporting for test execution. If the test step fails, simply replay the video to see what happened. Click on the failed steps in the test report to jump directly to the test case and debug it. 
  • Integrate with leading defect tracking tools including Jira, Bugzilla, CI/CD tools including Jenkins, Bamboo, TestRail for test case management, and more.

Ranorex Studio also has a full IDE so you can extend your test cases with code if desired.

Other Tools:

  1. Automation studio
  2. Robot framework
  3. Tricentis Tosca
  4. Scriptless Test Automation Framework

Design Goals

Some of the important design goals that should be considered are briefed below.

#1) Input Driven

Any input that needs to be provided to run automated tests should be coming from outside the “coding” part of your automation framework. Input can be your test steps, test conditions, test data, expected results, etc.

For every type of input, the framework should be supported in the form of keywords that are easy to use and thereby understand the context too.

#2) Allow Customization

This clearly means that you should provide options to customize the handling of test scripts for advanced users so that they can include unique scenarios. Advanced users can plug in their test scripts (in the form of a program) to the framework’s test input.

#3) Simplicity

This is a really important design goal as understanding how to set up, configure and use an automation framework should not become very difficult than coding.

One such example would be to provide a template that has all the required test inputs with default values (but relevant to the context).

This way, users will quickly understand how to provide test inputs based on their application needs. Another way would be to provide a high level of abstraction in the test inputs.

Example: Let’s consider the button click simulation. Here, as a user, I am only interested in a simple action called clicking a button.

The framework should be capable of performing that action by internally handling different methods of identifying a button control followed by the action. In fact, this is somewhat related to the Input driven goal where you have to define keywords that are easy to understand as this example, click the button.

#4) Platform Agnostic

Must be capable of running on different PC and Mobile platforms. Different browsers in the case of scriptless automation developed for web applications. As part of this goal, you should also consider supporting common test inputs across different platforms.

#5) Technology Agnostic

In today’s scenario, we all know that technologies are vast and there are a lot of options to develop applications.

No matter what technology is used to develop an application under test (under a given application type such as web or mobile), the automation framework should be capable of testing those applications with some minimal or no changes to test inputs and the framework engine itself.

#6) Test Environment Agnostic

It should be capable of running on cloud, on-premises, and virtual environments.

#7) Extensible

We need to provide options to plug-in the other software components to cover complex test scenarios.

Take an example of an e-commerce website which has both front end application and web services and you want to test the functionality of your application along with the performance. This requirement would definitely require plug-ins for tools that can test the web services and performance of the website as well.

Insight Into Implementation Requirements

Before taking a look at the specifics of implementation, let us first understand the high-level architectural components of the Scriptless Automation Framework.

Architectural Components of Scriptless Automation Framework

There are 3 primary components (of course, the components can be further split into the lower level, but that is not the purpose for now!) that we are going to see to get a big picture of the framework:

#1) Framework Core Engine: This is the core component of the framework that does all the heavy lifting jobs of automation logic, validations, interfaces to the rest of the components of the architecture, and third-party apps/scripts for customized test configuration and executions.

All test input actions are forwarded to the action handler to process the actions on the AUT (Application Under Test). For developing this engine, it is important to choose the right programming knowledge and technology by considering the design goals mentioned above.

Depending on the smart selection of technology, you will be able to meet most of your design goals thereby providing the best possible benefits to the consumers of the automation framework.

#2) Test Input Interface: This is the front end component from the consumer’s point of view and this is where you will provide all your test inputs such as test case steps, test conditions, test data, expected results, etc.

Remember, the design goal of simplicity is that this component should be designed in such a way that consumers can quickly adapt and start using your framework. Failing to meet this goal will result in less usage of your framework itself.

The interface to the core engine is the interpreter which typically follows some protocol to exchange information on test inputs.

#3) Test Output Interface: This is the component which is responsible for outputting your test results, test logs, defect logging, reporting, and dashboards. The framework core engine will forward the results to the Output logger which is then rendered by the Output interface.

Out of the above components, consumers would typically be interfacing with the Test input interface and Test output interface. Hence, we are only going to explore these 2 components only.

Test Input Interface

Test inputs can be provided in different ways. However, it entirely depends on what type of consumer we are targeting for this framework.

  • Files such as XML, Excel; Schema such as test data fields, test steps, data types and so on would be defined by the framework engine and that has to be followed while providing the test inputs.
  • GUI based input where you will provide the relevant test fields so that the consumers can provide all the test details for execution.
  • Visual editor based input where consumers can provide in the form of flow charts (supporting basic logic such as conditions and loops). In fact, this is the most trending way for providing input interface though it is comparatively time-consuming for developing such interface.

The typical set of features that need to be provided are:

  • Ability to group test cases based on test types and test priorities
  • Must be able to create custom test suites for running smoke & regression tests, selective tests, etc.
  • Test inputs that are platform agnostic.
  • Ability to execute a single test case multiple times.
  • We should be able to execute a single test case for different test values.
  • Ability to launch another executable for a specific test step or test case. E.g. Interface with Jenkins to automatically launch test execution.
  • Test configurations for execution and output logging. Example: Timeouts.
  • Provision to set up a “test script library” for reusability across teams and projects that are deemed as necessary.
  • Ability to import test data inputs from templates that have been created in the past.
  • Provision to import test case documents and map them to test data inputs. Remember the “Extensibility” design goal. Yes, this is the first step towards the next level of automation!

Test Output Interface

From the Scriptless Automation point of view, you must also ensure that you are able to view the test execution results in a seamless manner without any need to write special code.

The typical set of features that need to be provided are:

  • Ability to view test results, test logs, framework logs, etc.
  • Generated various test reports and dashboards.
  • Ability to create custom reports based on specific requirements.
  • Must be able to stream test results at run time through GUI.
  • Ability to interface with standard test case management tools.
  • Should be able to export test results, reports and dashboards in different formats such as Excel, doc, pdf, etc.
  • Ability to filter and parse test logs for specific requirements such as Performance test engineering etc.
  • Provision to push all test data (results, logs, selective data points) to advanced modules such as analytics. Remember the “Extensibility” design goal. Yes, this is yet another first step towards the next level of automation!

Benefits of Scriptless Test Automation

Enlisted below are the main benefits of creating Scriptless Framework:

  1. It is not mandatory for the testers to have any programming or scripting skills.
  2. Apart from the testers (who are the primary consumers of Scriptless automation), the framework used can be extended to the Product owners (in the Agile world), and Business Analysts as well for setting up and executing the User Acceptance Tests (UAT).
  3. Quicker development of automated tests that perfectly fit into the Agile process.
  4. It offers flexibility for both native and advanced users.
  5. Fewer related errors, such as the underlying scriptless framework, would have been tested thoroughly. This, in turn, reduces the time spent on debugging and fixing test related issues.
  6. Easier maintenance of the overall automation suite.

Myths About Scriptless Automation

Given below are a few myths about this framework.

#1) SAF is 100% scriptless: Actually, this is not 100% true. Though the goal is to make it 100% codeless, it is practically not possible to achieve this feat.

The primary reason for this is the presence of various complexities in the Application Under Test (AUT), technologies and the programming languages that are used in developing the software. Hence, one of the design goals that we have mentioned is to provide flexibility for customization.

#2) For using SAF, the testers do not need any programming or coding knowledge: Again, this is not 100% true. They do require some basic concepts of programming and logical skills.

When it comes to web or mobile-based applications, the testers also need to know the basics of objects and classes that need to be included as a part of customized scripts.

There are some tools like TestCraft which, in fact, does not need the QA professional to have coding knowledge. Their drag and drop plus on-the-fly features allow for anyone to understand how to run tests.

#3) SAF is all about record and playback, which can be relied on: No. Recording and playback will just give the user a working script with a hardcoded value of inputs and flows which has to be later customized.

In any case, it does NOT cover all possible scenarios for user inputs and test steps.

Scriptless Examples

Given below are some examples of Scriptless Automation for your easy understanding.

#1) Here is a test execution example

  1. Openwebpage
  2. Enter User in the Username field
  3. Enter Password in the Password field
  4. Click the Login button

Each of the above are keywords that are supported by Scriptless frameworks.

As a tester, you just have to just pass the values as shown below:

Openwebpage “”
Enteruser dummyuser
Enterpassword dummypwd, mask=true
Click Login

The words in italics are the keywords that accept arguments to perform actions.

Note: EnterPassword accepts 2 arguments. The second one is a flag indicating the masking of characters as it is typed in the password field.

#2) Let’s say, you want to automate the Payment Transaction Flow:

  • Select Account type
  • Enter the amount for 4the goods purchased
  • Enter PIN
  • Print Receipt

SelectAccount Credit
EnterAmount INR1000
EnterPIN 1234, mask=true
PrintReceipt Customercopy=false, Merchantcopy=true

The words in italics are the keywords that accept arguments to perform actions.

Note: EnterPIN accepts 2 arguments. The second is a flag indicating the masking of PIN digits as it is typed in the PIN entry field. PrintReceipt also has 2 arguments.

Please note that the flow above is typical of the transaction flow. You could use the entire flow as a “transaction test template” for various test cases. This is how you make the generation of test steps and test inputs easy for the testers.

Reusability of keywords, group of keywords and flow-based keywords can be done in Scriptless Automation Framework (SAF).


From this article, you would have figured out that developing a code-less or script-less automation framework is a challenging and equally interesting task.

Suggested Read => Best Platform for Low-code Automation Testing

You can develop such frameworks for any kind of application testing i.e. web-based, mobile apps, web services, GUI, database, embedded device applications, etc.

However, utmost care should be taken to develop a stable, reliable and high-performance tool. This is just a word of caution to choose the right technology and scripting/programming language to develop a wonderful and useful framework.

Do you have any experience in Scriptless Automation? Feel free to share your thoughts with us in the comments section below.

Recommended Reading

7 thoughts on “Scriptless Test Automation Framework: Tools and Examples”

  1. This is a real awesome topic it made me see things differently, thanks for sharing.

  2. Hello

    Good Job, Very informative article.
    for Scriptless Automation programming skill is very important..

  3. Worth reading it. Was trying to learn Robot Framework these days. But we don’t have any quality tutorials to start. Can you guys include a topic specific to robot framework?

  4. Hi, Thanks for sharing such wonderful tools!! I want to share one of the best Automation Testing tools to emphasize software testing. ClicAutomate is built on a script-less test automation approach which expedites automation testing. It also supports agile testing with the ability to handle ever-evolving changes in requirements, test cases and application UI. Very low learning time and high pace test creation makes ClicAutomate the most preferable test automation tool; reusability, traceability and the need of no technical knowledge makes it an exceptional.

  5. I would go a bit further than saying “[testers] do require some basic concepts of programming and logical skills”.

    For Basic tests that is perhaps true, but for most targets the automation testers need in-depth Software Engineering skills. Very good knowledge and experience in HTML and how it works is needed to ensure robust Object Mapping. Excellent programming skills are needed as most automated tests will be interacting with many different End-Points in addition to a UI (Such as Databases, SOAP/JSON, SMTP, File-drop etc.). In addition, the interaction/s will be in ways the interfaces were not designed to be used – IE. Calling webservices with badly formed XML to verify error handling, interacting with web pages were not designed to be interacted with by a machine – as well as having to ensure any failure doesnt cause the tests to fall over in an uncontrolled way. No tooling – ‘Scriptless’ or not – can resolve this as it is very Application specific.

    Whatever Automation tooling is used, a team needs at least one highly skilled software engineer or access to the skills needed. Any tool that states otherwise is being blatently dishonest. There is no silver bullet; good automation needs investment, and not in tools that seem claim to de-skill the automation task.

  6. This is worth reading, very good job. I would like to add my view that test automation frameworks are very crucial and there is no escape from automating things to make testing more effective. Sooner you opt, the better you are positioned. Keep sharing such information more on open source test automation.

  7. This is worth reading, very good job. I would like to add my view that test automation frameworks are very crucial and there is no escape from automating things to make testing more effective. Sooner you opt, the better you are positioned. Keep sharing such information more on open source test automation.


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