In part 1 of this QTP Parameterization tutorial, we explained Datatable Parameterization with an example. In this QTP tutorial let’s focus on remaining three techniques for parameterization in QTP:
2) Random number parameters
3) Environment variable parameters
4) Test/Action parameters
What You Will Learn:
#2 – Parameterization in QTP using Random Number
If a certain field needs to have any number within a certain range you can specify the same using QTP. In the Value configuration properties screen, select “Random number” and the following options come up:
As you can see, the options are pretty self-explanatory. The range can be set and how many times during a particular iteration run or a test run should this value be generated can be programmed here.
Let us just keep the default settings and click OK and see the line of code that gets inserted.
In real time, this is a very useful feature that can help the tester automate the scenarios in which the numeric range of data needs to be verified.
#3 – QTP Parameterization using Environment Variables
The environment variable is a value that remains the same throughout a test run unless explicitly changed by the program.
3 types of environment variables:
- User-defined internal
- User-defined external
We will start with built-in variables because that is the simplest.
Built-in variables are created by QTP itself and contain information about the test path, operation system etc. These are read-only and hence can only be used by the user as they are.
Some examples are TestIteration, OS, OSVersion etc. The usage is similar to the usage of any other variable. For example in the second iteration of a test you want to display a custom message, this is how you can do it:
If TestIteration=2 Msgbox “Cusotm message: Take a break!” <….Code….> End if
Next, let us try to parameterize a certain value with an environment variable.
From the above screen, you can see that the type is read-only and we are only able to create a user-defined- internal environment variable.
Click on the “Name” Drop down box:
Even though we have not created any environment variables in this test so far there are many of them available in the drop down to be used.
Select any one of them:
It shows that the variable is built-in and read-only. So this shows how we can use a built invariable.
But if we need a new one, enter a new name, say PV assign 0 and save it:
Let us first accept the default values and enter a “0” in the value field and click OK. The following is the line of code that gets inserted:
Since we inserted an E.V. it is obvious that the value of PV is going to be 0 throughout the test. The next time you are trying to parameterize anything else with an environment variable within the test this one will be available on the list.
User-defined – external: In the case when we need to have an entire list of environment variables available for a test, the user has an option to create it externally and associate it to the test and make those variable available to this test.
Typically, this file is a .xml with the structure as follow and is available on your desktop:
<Environment> <Variable> <Name>First Name</Name> <Value>Swati</Value> </Variable> <Variable> <Name>Last Name</Name> <Value>Seela</Value> </Variable> </Environment>
Once this is set, we can add this file to the test by going to “File->Settings->Environment” and selecting “User defined” from the drop-down:
In the screen, you can see the option to add the file, so ahead and add it.
Alternately, if I need the variables in this test for another one, I can export them into a file by clicking on “Export” option.
So now that we know how to set and use environment variables, there is yet another use for these:
In case, we set the values for URL_env and Browser_env variables, then the record and run settings set overrun and no matter what you set there, it is going to consider the values that these variables contain.
#4 – QTP Parameterization using Action and Test Parameters
We know that a test in QTP but a call to an action. Input parameters for an action or test are nothing but the values that get supplied to them from elsewhere in the test.
They could be:
- Value(s) passed on while calling that action
- Return value of another action (Output parameters)
- A value that it gets from some top-level action
Output parameters are the return values of an action that can be used later in the test.
The way these can be used to parameterize is as follows:
These can be used as a parameter by using the “Parameter” keyword.
If this is the statement that you need to parameterize so that the value you set is not a constant “Swati” but a value that is the input value of an action that is already defined, say “OPFirstName”:
Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("GoogleAccounts").WebEdit("FirstName").Set "swati”
This is how it is done:
Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("GoogleAccounts").WebEdit("FirstName").Set Parameter(“OPFirstName”)
Also, if there is an output parameter that is already defined then you could also write something like:
Parameter("TotalValue") = Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("GoogleAccounts").WebEdit("FirstName")
Now let us see, how the i/p or o/p parameters can be set in the first place. Let’s start with an action.
You can define, modify, and delete input and output parameters in the Parameters tab of the Action Properties dialog box (Edit > Action > Action Properties or right-click an action and select Action Properties).
Similarly, for the test, the parameters can be set:
So, to call an action with the input parameters this is the statement that needs to be used:
RunAction ActionName, IterationQuantity, Parameters
This concludes our parameterization in QTP topic. Out of all that we have discussed in these 2 articles, the one that we use the most is the data table option. So please take some time to write a test and run it with all the iteration options to get a grip on this topic.
As always, please let us know your comments and feel free to post your question. Coming topics are actions, functions and some error handling methods.