1. Define the following along with examples
a. Boundary Value testing
b. Equivalence testing
c. Error Guessing
d. Desk checking
e. Control Flow analysis
1-a) Boundary value Analysis: –
A process of selecting test cases/data by
identifying the boundaries that separate valid and invalid conditions. Tests are
constructed to test the inside and outside edges of these boundaries, in addition to
the actual boundary points. or A selection technique in which test data are chosen to
lie along “boundaries” of the input domain [or output range] classes, data structures,
procedure parameters, etc. Choices often include maximum, minimum, and trivial
values or parameters.
E.g. – Input data 1 to 10 (boundary value)
Test input data 0, 1, 2 to 9, 10, 11
1-b) Equivalence testing: –
The input domain of the system is partitioned into classes
of representative values, so that the no of test cases can be limited to one-per-class,
which represents the minimum no. of test cases that must be executed.
E.g.- valid data range: 1-10
Test set:-2; 5; 14
1-c) Error guessing: –
Test data selection technique. The selection criterion is to pick
values that seem likely to cause errors Error guessing is based mostly upon
experience, with some assistance from other techniques such as boundary value
analysis. Based on experience, the test designer guesses the types of errors that
could occur in a particular type of software and designs test cases to uncover them.
E.g. – For example, if any type of resource is allocated dynamically, a good place to
look for errors is in the de-allocation of resources. Are all resources correctly deallocated,
or are some lost as the software executes?
1-d) Desk checking: –
Desk checking is conducted by the developer of the system or
program. The process involves reviewing the complete product to ensure that it is
structurally sound and that the standards and requirements have been met. This is
the most traditional means for analyzing a system or program.
1-e) Control Flow Analysis: –
It is based upon graphical representation of the
program process. In control flow analysis; the program graphs has nodes which
represent a statement or segment possibly ending in an unresolved branch. The
graph illustrates the flow of program control from one segment to another as
illustrated through branches .the objective of control flow analysis is to determine
the potential problems in logic branches that might result in a loop condition or
improper processing .