Most Frequently asked Test/Quality Assurance Analyst Interview Questions and Answers:
While deciding the career in which you want to be, the deciding factor is not only the one you think can enjoy working on.
But being in that category requires a lot of skills, understanding the responsibilities as well as the necessary job duties for the career you chose. The same goes while choosing a career as a QA Analyst. It does not only require you to be a good tester, quick learner, extraordinary thinker but also requires being a complex problem solver too.
Although the above-mentioned qualities are not achieved instantly, obviously it requires experience also.
This article will cover each and every aspect which is a must to be a QA Analyst. The most frequently asked QA test Analyst interview questions and answers included here will give you a clear idea of your interview preparation.
Popular QA Test Analyst Interview Questions with Answers
Q #1) What are the responsibilities of a QA Analyst?
Answer: QA Analyst is the one who ensures that every possible measure has taken place for testing each and the feature of software solution both functionally and technically.
The major responsibilities of QA Analyst can be enlisted as follows:
- Execute and manage all the activities to meet the objectives of the test plan.
- They choose the processes of high quality to develop the product.
- Should be able to analyze the requirement and document procedures.
- Document and re-verify all defects. Set the priority and severity of defects.
- They should be able to create, document and maintain test cases.
- Analysis of test results.
Q #2) What is your understanding regarding a Test plan?
Answer: When you have a clear idea of what, when, how, and who, then things become easier. Same is the case with software testing as well, where test plan is a document that consists of scope, approach, resources, and outline of the testing project as well as the activities for tracking the progress of the project.
The test plan is a record of processes which include:
- Testing tasks
- Testing environment
- Design techniques
- Entry and exit criteria
- Any risks, etc.
Q #3) Enlist the priority of the testing tasks defined by the QA team in product development.
Answer: The testing tasks can be done as per the priority in the following way:
- A test plan is prepared consisting of the outline and scope of the testing project.
- Test cases are prepared to cover all the major and minor functionalities with the full data required for testing.
- Execution of the test cases as per the functionalities implemented with the coming builds of the testing project in the testing cycle.
- Defect reporting with re-verification as well as tracking its progress.
- Preparing the test execution report summary.
Q #4) Enlist some of the key challenges that are faced while performing Software Testing.
Answer: As we say that complete testing can never be achieved, there are several challenges involved in it. Be it a small or a complicated one there are some challenges faced while performing software testing of any project.
Enlisted below are few key challenges:
- Lack of skilled tester who usually face the problem of subject awareness as well as lack of good knowledge of customer’s business.
- Time is also considered as the factor, as usually testers focus mainly on task coverage rather than test coverage with quality testing when there is a huge list of task to be completed.
- To decide which test case has to be executed first and with priority. This is usually achieved by the experience of work.
- A proper understanding of the requirements which can lead to all your testing efforts to zero, if the requirement is misunderstood.
- Unavailability of best tools that are required to complete the testing with less time and more effectiveness.
- Handling the relationship between testers and developers with good communication and analyzing skills.
Q #5) Define Use Case Testing.
Answer: Use case testing can be defined as the functional black box testing technique which captures the series of interactions that has occurred between ‘actors’ and ‘system’. Here ‘Actors’ are the represented by the users and their interactions.
Some of the characteristics of the use case testing are enlisted below:
- Functional requirements of the project are organized.
- Records path or scenarios from start to finish.
- Can cover integration defects i.e. the defects that occurred as a result of interaction between different components.
- It describes the main flows as well as the exceptional flow of the events.
- Any pre-conditions that are required for the use case to work should be specified earlier.
Q #6) Define Test Strategy.
Answer: A set of guidelines or the testing approach that is usually carried out by the project manager to determine the test design and general testing approach is defined as Test Strategy. It is found as a small section of test plan and is used by multiple projects.
There are different test approaches that are followed, based on the factors like nature and domain of product, the risk of product failure, expertise in working with proposed tools, etc.
These approaches are further categorized as follows:
- Proactive approach, where the test designs approach is started before the build is created. Thus it helps in finding and fixing the bugs before the build.
- Reactive approach, where the testing approach is started after the completion of test design and coding.
Q #7) Explain the difference between Quality control and Quality assurance.
Answer: ‘Quality Control’ and ‘Quality Assurance’ are the two major terms used with respect to any testing project or product. Usually, testers, who are new to this field, do not understand the actual difference between the two.
Let's understand the difference with the help of the below table.
|Quality Assurance||Quality Control|
|It is a technique used for managing quality where all team members are responsible for process planning.||It is a technique used for verifying the quality where the testing team is responsible for executing the planned process.|
|Program execution is not involved in this process.||This process involves program execution.|
|It is a verification process to ensure that right things are done.||It is a validation process to ensure the occurrence of expected results.|
|It is a process oriented exercise where issues/defects occurrence in the application are not detected.||It is a product oriented exercise where issues/defects occurrence in application are identified and reported|
|Deliverables are created in this Quality Assurance process.||Deliverables are verified in this Quality Control process.|
|Not a time-consuming activity.||Considered as the time-consuming activity.|
|It comes under the category of Statistical Process control.||It comes under the category of Statistical Quality control.|
Q #8) According to you, when is the good time to start QA in a project?
Answer: According to the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the Testing phase is executed after the ‘Implementation and Coding’ phase is completed. But according to today’s scenario, in order to achieve best results, it is required to start the QA of the project or product at the starting of the project.
Following this approach will lead to the major advantages given below:
- Early process planning to meet customer’s quality expectations.
- Good and healthy communication between the teams.
- Gives ample amount of time that is required for setting up of the testing environment.
- Allows early review and approval of test plans.
Q #9) Differentiate Verification and Validation processes.
Answer: Verification and Validation processes are usually determined by two famous questions i.e. “Are we building the system right?” and “Are we building the right system?”.
Let us see the other difference between these two processes in the below table:
|Verification is defined as the process of evaluating the product for determining whether it meets the requirement and design specifications.||Validation is the process of determining whether the software satisfies the business need or is fit for uses.|
|It is considered as the static testing technique which does not involve and execution of the software.||It is considered as the dynamic testing technique where execution of the software is done.|
|This is a human based practice of verifying documents, files, designing, coding of programs, etc.||This is a computer-based practice of validating and testing the actual product.|
|Does not involve execution of code.||Involves execution of code.|
|Usually done by QA team to ensure software is as per requirement specifications.||Usually carried out by the testing team.|
|Performed before validation process.||Performed after the verification process.|
|E.g. Inspection, walk-through, reviews, etc||E.g. Smoke testing, regression testing, functional testing, etc.|
Q #10) Explain the benefits of Destructive Testing.
Answer: Destructive testing is defined as the form of testing that is carried out by the testing team to determine the point of failure of the product under different loads i.e. to evaluate the application structural performance to determine its strength, toughness, hardness or say robustness.
Enlisted below are the benefits of Destructive testing:
- The weakness of the application design is determined.
- Determine the service life of the application.
- Helps to reduce costs and failure.
Q #11) How is Retesting different from Regression Testing?
Answer: There are several differences between Retesting and Regression Testing.
The difference between both can be easily understood from the below table:
|Regression testing is the process of determining or say finding issues which may have been introduced to the existing functionality with the code change.||Retesting is the process of re-verifying the failed test case after the defect has been fixed.|
|Regression testing can be performed through automation.||Cannot automate the test cases for retesting.|
|This testing is usually performed when there is the change in existing code or say any new functionality.||Retesting is done to the same defect with the same environment but with the fixes in the new build.|
|This is generic testing which is usually carried out for passed test cases.||This is planned testing which is usually carried out for failed test cases.|
|Can be performed parallel with retesting.||Is done before regression testing.|
|Even the passes test cases are executed during this process.||Only the failed test cases are retested.|
|Verification of the bug is not included.||Verification of the bug is the part of retesting.|
Q #12) What do you know about Data-Driven Testing?
Answer: It is very clear to every automation tester that automation test scripts cover only the area of the application to be tested with a recorded sequence of user actions. Normally, these actions do not produce any error as only that input data are taken under conditions which we have entered while recording.
Data-driven testing comes into picture here, where we want the application to work as expected for any type of input values. For this purpose, data required for data-driven testing are not hardcoded but test scripts take their data from data sources like CSV files, ODBC sources, etc.
To summarize, data-driven testing performs the following actions in the loop:
- Takes input test data from the storage.
- Data entered in the application to perform actions.
- Verify the actual results with the expected ones.
- Again repeat the same steps with new input test data.
Q #13) What is Traceability Matrix? Is it required for every project?
Answer: Traceability matrix in any project is the means of tracking the progress of the project with respect to the implementation of new functionalities, enhancement of existing functionalities, etc. Through traceability matrix, you can always keep an eye on the project progress with each and every aspect maintained as per the date.
Requirement Traceability matrix basically consists of the below-mentioned parameters which are actually as per the requirement specification document.
Parameters of Requirement Traceability matrix include:
- Every section of requirement document is a point to be covered in RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix).
- The headline of each point is the headline of each section in the requirement specification.
- Corresponding test case ids are mentioned which are written for that particular section.
- BUG/New Feature ID is also mentioned in each section.
- The most important point is, tracking of the feature is also maintained in which the build of the project and its feature has been implemented.
- Another parameter includes whether the section is fully tested or is still under testing status.
Q #14) Describe the benefits of Agile Testing.
Answer: Being a tester, the focus becomes delivering the quality product in less time span by understanding the end user requirement and most importantly, no defects from the end-user side. Here, Agile testing comes in the picture which follows the principle of agile software development and quickly validates the client’s requirements.
Mentioned below are the benefits of Agile testing:
- A cross-functional agile team is included in testing, which in turn deliver the results at frequent intervals.
- Saves a lot of time and money.
- Includes less documentation and time to time feedback from the end user.
- Not only the tester, but the whole team including the manager, customer, and the developer are involved in face to face communication.
- As a result of daily meetings, issues can be well determined in advance.
- Increase in team productivity and the better understanding of the technical aspects of the project.
Q #15) What is Negative Testing?
Answer: Negative testing is the method of ensuring that the stability of a product or application is maintained or say do not fail when unexpected input is given. The main purpose of this form of testing validates the application against any possible invalid input data.
This form of testing is also known as ‘failure testing’ or ‘error path testing’ and its main purpose is to check the application function reliability under negative scenarios. It also exposes software weakness, spots the faults and gives a clear idea of data corruption.
Q #16) Differentiate Ad-hoc Testing and Exploratory Testing?
Answer: There are several differences between Ad-hoc testing and Exploratory testing.
Let see the differences in the below table:
|Adhoc Testing||Exploratory testing|
|This form of testing includes learning the application first and then proceeding with the testing process.||As the name suggests, this form of testing includes learning the application while testing.|
|Any specific set of documents to perform testing is not available.||Testing of the application is done with the detailed set of documents.|
|It is required to have good hands on experience and knowledge of the software before testing.||Knowledge of the software application is gained while performing exploratory testing.|
|It is an informal testing which basically follows negative testing.||It is considered as formal testing which follows positive testing.|
|Does not work with the workflow.||Works with the workflow.|
Q #17) Why is Automation Testing preferred over Manual Testing?
Answer: Well, Both Automation testing and Manual testing have their own importance and existence in the world of testing.
Given below are some important aspects due to which Automation Testing is preferred over Manual Testing:
- The same test script can be used every time to run the test thus automation testing is considered as the most reliable and efficient one.
- Mostly preferred in case of regression testing and repeated execution.
- Automation testing is considered to be a cost-effective one in the case of long-term execution and thus ensures a better quality of software.
- Test scripts are reusable, fast and everyone can see the results.
- Tools used for automation testing are more fast and reliable when compared to the manual approach.
Although, there are some more factors that determine why automation testing is preferred over manual testing? Above mentioned are the major factors.
Q #18) What do you understand by ‘Test effectiveness’ and ‘Test efficiency’?
Answer: Test Efficiency can be defined as calculating the amount of resources and test code consumed to perform or say execute a particular function. It also determines the amount of resources utilized in a Software product creation.
This can be determined by the formula:
Test efficiency = (Number of defects resolved/total number of defects submitted)* 100
Test Effectiveness can be defined as the measure of evaluating the test environment and its effect on the software application. Here customer response is evaluated when application requirement is fulfilled.
This can be determined by the formula:
Test effectiveness: = (Number of defects found/ Number of test cases executed)
Q #19) Explain the process of Project Tailoring.
Answer: Project tailoring is a consistent and an ongoing process which makes sure that performance of the project is correct and is according to the business requirements. The whole process includes reviewing and modifying the project data as per the current operational need of the organization.
The review process is done at the organizational level but the implementation of the tailoring plans is done at the project level. Main goal and requirement of the organization, as well as customer and user relationship, are the two major factors that should be considered in the process.
Few aspects that are considered to be as per the organizational goals under the tailoring process are:
- Project approach
- Controls and processes involved
- Roles and responsibilities
Q #20) How do you differentiate between Priority and Severity of the defect within the project?
Answer: Both ‘Priority’ and ‘Severity’ is assigned to the bug for categorizing the issues/bugs for the order in which they are to be taken for fixing. These are based on various factors.
Let us understand more along with their differences in the below table:
|Priority determines the order in which the developers take up the defects/ issues for fixing.||Severity determines the impact of a particular issue/ defect on the functionality of the application.|
|This is associated with scheduling of the issues and is driven by business standards.||This is both associated and is driven by functionality.|
|Priority of the issue is decided on the basis of customer requirements.||Severity of the issue is decided considering the technical aspects of the product.|
|Categorized as ‘High’, ‘Medium’ and ‘Low’.||Categorized as ‘Moderate’, ‘Major’, ‘Minor’, ‘Critical’.|
|When a bug has|
Status: High priority and Low severity
Result: Defect does not impact the application much but needs to be fixed immediately.
|When a bug has|
Status: High severity and low priority
Result: Defect has to be fixed but does not require any immediate action.
Q #21) Why is Performance Testing necessary to be done for any application?
Answer: In simple language, Performance testing is done to determine the behavior and response of an application under various situations. This helps to gather information regarding application stability, scalability, speed, etc.
The reasons for doing performance testing can be understood from the below points:
- It determines the response time and performance of an application component under the workload.
- The response time of user’s activity is calculated.
- Requires experienced programmers with extensive technical language.
- Determines the behavior of the application under load i.e. when the number of the user increases instantly.
Q #22) What is Specification-Driven testing?
Answer: As the name itself defines, Specification-driven testing is basically done on the basis of requirement specification of the application where functional specifications serve as the basis of the tests performed.
This form of testing is same as ‘Black box testing’ where the user inputs multiple data and then the output is observed. It is appropriate at all levels of testing with specification and test plan.
Q #23) Explain CMMI.
Answer: CMMI stands for Capability Maturity Model Integration. This model was developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI). It is based on the principle that the processes involved in managing and developing a product or system determine the quality.
It also provides guidelines for process improvement for the product or even the entire organization.
CMMI is divided into 5 levels as enlisted below:
- Level 1: Initial
- Level 2: Managed
- Level 3: Defined
- Level 4: Quantitatively Managed
- Level 5: Optimized
Q #24) Explain the Advantages of implementing CMMI.
Answer: There are several advantages of implementing CMMI.
They are listed as follows:
- Provides detailed coverage and reporting of the product lifecycle and thus helps in process improvements.
- The existing standards of the organization, their processes and procedures get improved as a part of CMMI implementation.
- As a result of CMMI implementation, there is the increase in on-time delivery as well as customer satisfaction.
- It also leads to effective management and increased cost savings as there is early detection of errors.
Q #25) Enlist some Automation Testing Tools.
Answer: Some of the automation testing tools are enlisted below:
From the above question and answers, you must have understood that a QA Analyst is not only responsible for implementing practices and principles or to perform testing covering all the aspects.
But is also responsible to provide “quality assurance” to the project throughout the testing cycle. At the end, all the requirements must be met with overall quality both functionally and technically.
Hope this article helps you with your preparation for a successful career. We wish you all the very best.