What is Defect/Bug Life Cycle in Software Testing? Defect Life Cycle Tutorial

Introduction to Defect Life Cycle:

In this tutorial, I will talk about the life cycle of a defect to make you aware of the various stages of a defect which a tester has to deal with while working in a testing environment.

I have also added the most frequently asked interview questions on defect life cycle. This is important to know about the various states of a defect for understanding the life cycle of a defect. The main intention of performing a testing activity is to check if the product has any issues/errors.

Defect Life Cycle

In terms of real scenarios, errors/mistakes/faults are all referred to as bugs/defects and hence we can say, that the main objective of doing a testing is to assure that the product is less prone to defects (no defects is an unrealistic situation).

Now, the question arises as what actually a Defect is?

What is Defect?

A Defect, in simple terms, is a flaw or an error in an application that is restricting the normal flow of an application by mismatching the expected behavior of an application with the actual one.

The defect occurs when any mistake is made by a developer during the designing or building of an application and when this flaw is found by a tester, it is termed as a defect.

It is the responsibility of a tester to do a thorough testing of an application with an intention to find as many defects as possible so as to ensure that a quality product will reach the customer.

It is important to understand about defect life cycle before moving to the workflow and different states of the defect.

Hence, let’s take know more about Defect Life Cycle.

So far, we discussed the meaning of defect and its relation in context to the testing activity. Now, let’s move to the defect life cycle and understand the workflow of a defect and the different states of a defect.

Defect Life Cycle in Detail

A Defect life cycle, also known as a Bug life cycle, is a cycle of a defect from which it goes through covering the different states in its entire life. This starts as soon as any new defect is found by a tester and comes to an end when a tester closes that defect assuring that it won’t get reproduced again.

Defect Workflow:

It is now time to understand the actual workflow of a defect life cycle with the help of a simple diagram as shown below.

Defect Life cycle

Defect States:

#1) New: This is the first state of a defect in the defect life cycle. When any new defect is found, it falls in a ‘New’ state and validations and testing are performed on this defect in the later stages of the defect life cycle.

#2) Assigned: In this stage, a newly created defect is assigned to the development team for working on the defect. This is assigned by the project lead or the manager of the testing team to a developer.

#3) Open: Here, the developer starts the process of analyzing the defect and works on fixing it, if required. If the developer feels that the defect is not appropriate then it may get transferred to any of the below four states namely Duplicate, Deferred, Rejected or Not a Bug-based upon the specific reason.

I will discuss these four states in a while.

#4) Fixed: When the developer finishes the task of fixing a defect by making the required changes then he can mark the status of the defect as ‘Fixed’.

#5) Pending Retest: After fixing the defect, the developer assigns the defect to the tester for retesting the defect at their end and till the tester works on retesting the defect, the state of the defect remains in ‘Pending Retest’.

#6) Retest: At this point, the tester starts the task of working on the retesting of the defect to verify if the defect is fixed accurately by the developer as per the requirements or not.

#7) Reopen: If any issue still persists in the defect then it will be assigned to the developer again for testing and the status of the defect gets changed to ‘Reopen’.

#8) Verified: If the tester does not find any issue in the defect after being assigned to the developer for retesting and he feels that if the defect has been fixed accurately then the status of the defect gets assigned to ‘Verified’.

#9) Closed: When the defect does not exist any longer then the tester changes the status of the defect to ‘Closed’.

Few More:

  • Rejected: If the defect is not considered as a genuine defect by the developer then it is marked as ‘Rejected’ by the developer.
  • Duplicate: If the developer finds the defect as same as any other defect or if the concept of the defect matches with any other defect then the status of the defect is changed to ‘Duplicate’ by the developer.
  • Deferred: If the developer feels that the defect is not of very important priority and it can get fixed in the next releases or so in such a case, he can change the status of the defect as ‘Deferred’.
  • Not a Bug: If the defect does not have an impact on the functionality of the application then the status of the defect gets changed to ‘Not a Bug’.

The mandatory fields when a tester logs any new bug are Build version, Submit On, Product, Module, Severity, Synopsis and Description to Reproduce


In above list, you can add some optional fields if you are using manual Bug submission template. These Optional Fields include Customer name, Browser, Operating system, File Attachments or screenshots.

The following fields remain either specified or blank:
If you have authority to add bug Status, Priority and ‘Assigned to’ fields then you can specify these fields. Otherwise, Test manager will set status, Bug priority and assign the bug to the respective module owner.

Look at the following Defect cycle:

Defect/Bug Life cycle

The above image is quite detailed and when you consider the significant steps in bug life cycle you will get a quick idea about it.

On successful logging, the bug is reviewed by Development or Test manager. Test manager can set the bug status as Open, can Assign the bug to developer or bug may be deferred until next release.

When a bug gets assigned to a developer and he/she can start working on it. The developer can set bug status as won’t fix, Couldn’t reproduce, Need more information or ‘Fixed’.

If the bug status set by the developer is either ‘Need more info’ or Fixed then the QA responds with a specific action. If the bug is fixed then QA verifies the bug and can set the bug status as verified closed or Reopen.

Guidelines for Implementing Defect Life Cycle

There are some important guidelines which can be adopted before starting to work with defect life cycle.

These are as follows:

  • It is very important that before starting to work on the defect life cycle, the whole team clearly understands the different states of a defect (discussed above).
  • Defect Life Cycle should be properly documented to avoid any confusion in the future.
  • Make sure that each individual who has been assigned any task related to defect life cycle should understand his/her responsibility very clearly for better results.
  • Each individual who is changing the status of a defect should be properly aware of that status and should provide enough details about the status and the reason for putting that status so that everyone who is working on that particular defect can understand the reason of such a status of a defect very easily.
  • Defect tracking tool should be handled with care to maintain the consistency among the defects and thus, in the workflow of the defect life cycle.

Next, let’s discuss the interview questions based on the defect life cycle.

Important FAQs or Interview Questions on Bug Life Cycle

Q #1) What is a defect in the perspective of Software Testing?

Ans: A defect is any kind of flaw or error in the application that is restricting the normal flow of an application by mismatching the expected behavior of an application with the actual one.

Q #2) What is the major difference between Error, Defect, and Failure?

Ans: Error: If the developers find that there is a mismatch in the actual and expected behavior of an application in the development phase then they call it as an Error.

Defect: If testers find a mismatch in the actual and expected behavior of an application in the testing phase then they call it as a Defect.

Failure: If customers or end users find a mismatch in the actual and expected behavior of an application in the production phase then they call it as a Failure.

Q #3) What is the status of a defect when it is initially found?

Ans: When a new defect is found, it is in ‘New’ state. This is the initial state of a newly found defect.

Q #4) What are the different states of a defect in the defect life cycle when a defect is approved and fixed by a developer?

Ans: Different states of a defect, in this case, are New, Assigned, Open, Fixed, Pending Retest, Retest, Verified and Closed.

Q #5) What happens if a tester still finds an issue in the defect that is fixed by a developer?

Ans: The tester can mark the state of the defect as ‘Reopen’ if he still finds an issue in the fixed defect and the defect gets assigned to a developer for retesting.

Q #6) What is a producible defect?

Ans: A defect which is occurring repeatedly in every execution and whose steps can be captured in every execution, then such a defect is called as a ‘producible’ defect.

Q #7) What type of defect is a not reproducible defect?

Ans: A defect which is not occurring repeatedly in every execution and is producing only at some instances and whose steps as a proof have to be captured with the help of screenshots, then such a defect is called as a ‘not reproducible’ defect.

Q #8) What is a defect report?

Ans: A defect report is a document which includes reporting information about the defect or flaw in the application which is causing the normal flow of an application deviated from its expected behavior.

Q #9) What details are included in a defect report?

Ans: A defect report consists of the following details:

Defect ID, Description of the defect, Feature Name, Test Case Name, Reproducible defect or not, Status of a defect, Severity, and Priority of a defect, Tester Name, Date of testing the defect, Build Version in which the defect was found.

And the Developer to whom defect has been assigned, name of the person who has fixed the defect, Screenshots of a defect depicting the flow of the steps, Fixing the date of a defect and the person who has approved the defect.

Q #10) When is a defect changed to a ‘deferred’ state in the defect life cycle?

Ans: When a defect that is found is not of a very high importance and the one which can get fixed in the later releases are moved to a ‘deferred’ state in the defect life cycle.

Conclusion

This is all about Defect Life Cycle.

I hope you must have gained immense knowledge about the life cycle of a defect. This tutorial will, in turn, help you while working with the defects in the future in an easy manner.



190 comments ↓

#1 Sheetal

Can you please provide any template for bug report?

#2 sailasri

Can provide the list of free automation tools and their links to download

#3 Sam

Can you please provide Real time questions&Answers?

#4 Sam

Can you please provide Real time questions&Answers?
What is Webapp and Desktop app &windows app ?

#5 Naveen Pathak

Nice defination,
but these all state can applied in a manual template, not in a generic tool like, Zera/BugZilla.

#6 Trupti

can u pls post the real bug report??
say for login screen..?

#7 Vijay

@Sheetal: I have updated post with bug report template
https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/how-to-write-good-bug-report/

@sailasri : Here is the comprehensive list of all open source automation tools:
http://www.opensourcetesting.org/functional.php

@ Naveen and Trupti: You can see the bug report template in our article ‘How to write a bug report?’
Most of the fields in bug report are bugzilla fields, if you want real bug report see below the simple bug reported in bugzilla:

(Note that this is only a example bug report)

Summary: In CTR(Click trough ratio) ‘Total’ row calculation is wrong

Product: Example product

Version: 1.0

Platform: PC

URL: http://example.com/stats/traffic.php

OS/Version: Windows 2000

Status: NEW

Severity: Major

Priority: P1

Component: Publisher stats

AssignedTo: developer@example.com

ReportedBy: tester@example.com

CC: manager@example.com

Description:

Reproduce steps:

1)Go to page http://example.com/stats/traffic.php

2)Click on ‘Publisher stats’ link to view publisher’s revenue detail stats datewise.

3)On page http://example.com/stats/publisher_traffic.php
check CTR value in ‘Total’ row of CTR stats table.

Actual result: Calculation of ‘Total’ row in CTR table is wrong. Also Individual row CTR for each publisher is
not truncated to 2 digits after decimal point.Its showing CTR like 0.042556767.

Expected result: Total CTR= (Total clicks/Total searches)*100

#8 sailasri

Thank you

#9 Smitha

Can any one help me to educate me abt Product Testing? Please…. Its urgent…

#10 chanda

i am eager to get job in testing ,but i don’t get call b’s i don’t have experience.plz tell me what sh’d i do?

#11 Raaghu

hi
i have one question, it was asked in interview i.e if i(Tester)has found 3 bugs and in the customer end he found 6 bugs then what is the bug ratio?

#12 JaiPrakash

Please provide a template for bug report

#13 mazi

Can you provide details for STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) .. greatly appreciated

#14 anuprita

hi, i have one question regarding Testing Documentation. Can you provide me detailed format of Testing Documentation.& how to prepare testing documentation

#15 anuprita

Can you provide me information about International Certified s/w Testing Courses?

#16 Ashwin Channe

Hi sam,

I am Ashwin, working as a QA Engineer in MNC.

I have the collections of recent industry questions and answers.

Kindly send me your email id if you are interested.

Regards
Ashwin

#17 Trupti

Hi Ashwin

Kindly please send me industry question and answers. because i want to change the company as i had completed 1 year in this company and want to apply in MNC
Thanks in advance
Trupti

#18 sandeep

can u send me sm real time question and answar
thanks in addvance
sandeep,,,,,,

#19 mithu

can u plz sent the reat time questions and some projects if it it will be very helpful to me

#20 srinu

hi, ashwin this srinu, can u send me that real time industy ?’s.Bcz i am into trail in testing with 3+.i hope it is useful for me.thank q

#21 kishore

Hi, Ashwin
I need your help. Pl send methe real time industry questions as this will help me in changing my career. Thank you

#22 Bharathi

Hi Ashwin,

If you dont mind send me the question please.

Regards,
Bharani

#23 Bharathi

Hi All,

If there is any requirment in your companies let me know.
I am looking for a change, currently i am working in Accenture from past 2 years.

Regards,
Bharani

#24 selvam

Hi All, I am very new to the testing .Plz can anybody give me the list of sites which give the full details of software testing along with all the tables for test cases bug repot tables etc. though i had learned some basics about testing i lack the real time exposure ,can anyone help me?????????

#25 PPt

09847932229-call me selvam
i will help UUUUUUUUUUUUU

#26 PPt

What is TM?
What is Bug Life Cycle?
Types of Bugs?
How to fix a bug?

#27 selvam

Hi Ashwin,

If you dont mind, Plz send me the question and answers.
Thanks in advance.

regds
selvam.ba@rediffmail.com

#28 selvam

Thanku PPt, I am frm chennai.may i know where the gentle person from????????

#29 selvam

PPt Can you please send me to my mail.
selvam.ba@rediffmail.com

#30 swati

hi ashwin,

could u plz forward me the collection of qs u have with you for my id.

swty79@rediffmail.com

#31 rajesh

how to diffine bug in testing?

#32 Jaykay

HI Swati!

How is ur preparation?

jk

#33 Jaykay

Hi Rajesh,

Bug:Once the developer accepts your defect,then that is called as a bug.

#34 rajesh

what is diffrence bug report and bugtack.

#35 Jaykay

Bugreport: Its a document having description abt bugs.
Bugtrack: Its the way how we are reporting the bug.
(thro tool or doc)

if am wrong let me know pls

#36 sowmya

hi ashwin

pls forward me the questionare u have…….
my id is……pola.sowmya@gmail.com

#37 Rama Krishna

Hi,

I am new i want start my job on testing plz. send

quations & answers

rama krishna

#38 Goverdhan Goud

Hi, Friends

how to give the seviority
1.critical
2.high
3.medium
4.low
pls explain about those in bug report.

#39 Devi

hi jk

my mail id is sridevi_delight@rediffmail.com

#40 Devi

hi

can i know wht do u mean by test case doucument, is it necessary to have priorities in the documents.
and also test procedure

#41 jk

Hi Devi,

Test Case: Is a sequence of process to check the functionality of the feature or component.

A test case is also defined as a sequence of steps to test the correct behavior of a functionality/feature of an application.

#42 jk

“Priority” can be defined as How that particular test case impact the business or application.

If am not clear or wrong pls let me know.

thnx
jk

#43 Girish

Wow! it sounds good

#44 jk

Hi Devi, these are also the benifits if u mention priority in test cases

a. You shorten the time required for testing
b. You do the best testing in the time available
c. You do more effective testing
d. You find more faults………………….

thnx
jk

#45 lalit

Hi ashwin plz mail the qus and ans to lalitd@indiatimes.com

#46 santosh

Hi Devi,

Test casedocument is related to The Test cases which are produced from the scenarios. And When there wonot be time, then only Priority comes into picture. Me worked in Applabs, Verizon etc… my yahoo id: santoshpalvai@yahoo.com

#47 santosh

Priority: It is according to the Business needs

#48 Balister Panwar

hai Ashwin

My self Balister Panwar…………please tell we .. what is the format of test case in Real time ..testing .
my ID is Panwar.balister@gmail.com

#49 Mahesh

Hi, All
Can Anyone tell me the contents of Test Plan..

#50 Rahul

@jk
priority–talks Application Issues
severity–talks Business issues!!!

say this in interview ..it makes impact buddy!!! means u have worked on real prjt..

#51 Rahul

@Mahesh
test plan consist of
1>deliverables
2>Objectivity
3>schedule & Milestone& staffing
4>risk
5>approach,assumption,aim
6>tool used,environment,
thest all are important item that shoul dpresent in TP
ping me back rahulkumarbangalore@yahoo.co.in

#52 Sursh

Hai

I am manual tester there are no any tools in my company, I am preparing Defect report format in Excel itself only and every thing is OK. But the main problem is sometime I need to send a snapshot(screens) to the development team along with Defect report. Though I keep hyperlink in the same excel file there are problem relating to links when path is changing. So I need to provide the process of sending snapshots along with defect report

#53 george

@sursh
Bug tracking tools you can download from the net and configure for your company needs. One which is good of such is Qengine Issue Manager.
Enjoy… Why you want to send screen shots just add a column section\screen in your excel sheet and describe the issue too.
Cheers
george

#54 phalguna

hi ashwin, nice to meet u

This Phalguna iam working in software company i want change to MNC
If u don’t mind could u plz forward me the collection of Qs and Answers u have with you for my id.

Thanks in advance.
regds
s_phalguna@yahoo.com

#55 laxman

how i test(convert) the project in to automation like QTP…………to testing

#56 VIJAYD

Hi All,

On seeing many requests, I feel that the below one would be helpful to you all.

Lets assume in your application you want to create a new user with his/her information, for that you need to logon into the applicataion and navigate to USERS menu > New User, then enter all the details in the User form like, First Name, Last Name, Age, Address, Phone etc. Once you enter all these need to click on SAVE button in order to save the user and you can see a success message saying “New User has been created successfully”.

Now you entered into your application by logging in and navigete to USERS menu > New user, entered all the information and clicked on SAVE button and now the application creashed and you can see one error page
on the screen, now you would like to report this BUG.

BUG REPORT:

Bug Name: Application crash on clicking the SAVE button while creating a new user.
Bug ID : It will be automatically created by the BUG Tracking tool once you save this.
Area Path: USERS menu > New Users
Build Number:/Version Number 5.0.1
Severity: HIGH (High/Medium/Low)
Priority: HIGH (High/Medium/Low)
Assigned to: Developer-X
Created By: Your Name
Cerated On: Date
Reason: Defect
status: New/Open/Active – Depends on the Tool you are using
Environment: Windows 2003/SQL Server 2005

Description:
Application crash on clicking the SAVE button while creating a new
user, hence unable to create a new user in the application.

Steps To Reproduce:
1) Logon into the application
2) Navigate to the USers Menu > New User
3) Filled all the fields
4) Clicked on Save button
5) Seen an error page “ORA1090 Exception: Insert values Error…”
6) See the attached logs for more information
7) And also see the attached screenshot of the error page.

Expected: On clicking SAVE button should be prompted to a success message “New User has been created successfully”.

Save the defect/bug in the BUG TRACKING TOOL.

Regards,
VijayD

#57 Ashwin kumar

Hi,
thanx for providing the detailed information about the Testing

#58 Suresh Balakrishnan

Hi Sowmya,

This is suresh working as a Test Engineer i think better you visit following Sites these are most helpful for you http://www.stickyminds.com, http://www.qastreet.com, http://www.sqa-guide.com, http://www.testinggeek.com.

Thanks,
Suresh Balakrishnan.
bsuresh7282@gmail.com

#59 Suresh Balakrishnan

Hi Anupriya,

This is Suresh working as a Test Engineer i have mentioned International Software testing Certification as below:
ISTQB please visit http://www.istqb.org/downloads/syllabi/SyllabusFoundation.pdf
Thanks,
Suresh
bsuresh7282@gmail.com

#60 Bibin

Hi Vijay,

Can you pls explain this :

What are the reasons for marking a bug as Invalid ?

#61 madhuri

hi
this is madhuri.i need a change iam presently working in brainstorm technologies.if at all any recruitments in u r company plz forward details to my mail

thank u

#62 santosh

Hi,

This is santosh from hyderabad.I am also looking for a change. I am having yrs of experience and holding a valid business Visa(USA). If any recuirtments there , plz let me know. Thanks before hand. My yahoo id: santoshpalvai@yahoo.com.

#63 Vishal

hi ashwin,

could u plz forward me the collection of qs u have with you for my id.

vishal.bhavsar@manikssys.com

#64 Ashwini

hi ashwin,

could u plz forward me the collection of qs u have with you for my id.

asankar@nstl.com

#65 santosh

Hi Madhuri,

Hru doing, Any updates, any interview calls, Have u changed the job, Kindly can u update to my id: santoshpalvai@yahoo.com

Thanks Before Hand

#66 Rahul Das

Is Software Quality and Software Testing Equal ?

#67 kanchan

hi suresh and vijay

This is kanchan,i am working in MNC as a software test engineer.i have only one year of experience.i want to do certification .. can u suggest me any software testing related certification course to my mail id other than ISTQB.

My id is kanchan_eyes@yahoo.com

Thanks
kanchan

#68 Gautam

I need some help. Could you solve this query i got this query the other day. Any help would be appreciated

Write down any potential problems or omissions from this

Fault Log

Fault no: 278 Environment: Windows 98
Priority:3 Tester:Author
Application: Web testing

Description
When i log onto the screen DF342 I should be able to delete records. However when trying to delete records an error message appears telling mw that im not authorized

Response:
25 Aug: Programmer: Security needs to be setup providing access to the delete facility- No error

26 Aug:Tester: We had Security up and it doesnt seem to work- I have reopened this fault

#69 Ali

Can a “closed” bug be re-opened ? remember we are talking different iterations.

#70 Ali

there is a difference in what the diagram says about “re-opening” a bug and the text here on the page.

#71 Neha Dudeja

When do we mark the bug as “Won’t fix” and “Works for me”?

#72 avinash

H!! Ashwin,

can u plz forward the Q.’s that u r havng
It would be very nice!!!

#73 avinash

avinash

email : avi_nagare@rediffmail.com

#74 Prasad

@Neha,

“Won’t Fix” —>> this will be assigned by Developer.
when a bug is not effecting any functionality of the application. Then the developer will change the status of bug From “New” to “Won’t fix”.

#75 sandesh

hi…
I am the student ofpune university.We have the software testing as subject. So plz tellme the web-sites that will help me for my study….

#76 ak

gh

#77 deepa

Hi, I m Deepa
I have 4 years of experience in troubleshooting and maintenance of software, now I would like to get a job in software testing. how I can get job in software testing? pls suggest.

#78 Akshata

Hi,

Can you please tell me the difference between Test Scenario, Test Case and Test Script.

#79 Govardhan Reddy M

Dear Ms. Deepa (# 81),
Yes, You can. Because Impossible is nothing, When our heart is willing. Just read out my comments at

https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/how-to-get-job-in-software-testing-quickly/

Regards,
Govardhan Reddy M,
Software Test Engineer.
“Law of win says, Lets not do it in my way or your way, But lets do it in the best way”.

#80 Govardhan Reddy M

Dear Ms. Akshata (# 82),
Test Case:
———–
Describes set of instructions to carry out. Besides consists of the fields test name, design step, step number, description, pass/fail criteria, etc.,

Test Script:
————
Manually written script or generated script for automation purpose.
May be covering a single test case or more than one test case at a time.
No limit of number of test cases.

Test Scenario:
—————
Group of test cases together is collectively called as test scenario.
Main intention to test the every day routine use of the DUT/AUT/SUT.
Can also be defined as testing the major part of computer program.

If all the test cases are passed, then only we can say that this scenario is passed.

Field issues/bugs/defects are almost all test scenarios only.

Regards,
Govardhan Reddy M,
Software Test Engineer.
“Law of win says, Lets not do it in my way or your way, But lets do it in the best way”.

#81 Akshata

Thanks Govardhan

#82 Deepa

Dear Govardhan Reddy JI,
I can apply For which type of jobs in software testing (FRESHERS OR EXPRNCD).COMPANY WILL TAKE(OR NOT) ANY INTEREST IN MY RESUME..

#83 S.Prasad

can some one tell wht is the diffrence between defect and a bug…

#84 Govardhan Reddy M

Dear Ms. Deepa (#86),
Pl. route your resume to my email id gova.mca@gmail.com

How can I say without looking into your profile?

Regards,
Govardhan Reddy M,
Software Test Engineer.
“Do the right thing!”

#85 Govardhan Reddy M

Dear Mr. Prasad S (# 87),
After 2-3 hr of google search in my free time, I collected the below information. Have a look and finalize by yourself.

*********************************
Error : Deviation for actual and the expected/theoritical value .

Bug : An Error found in the development environment before the product is shipped to the customer .

Defect : An Error found in the product itself after it is shipped to the customer .

Defect: The flaws that exist in the system and is in the knowledge of everyone and cannot be solved at that moment.

Bug: The flaws that exist in the system and the system doesn’t work according to the business logic and occurs due to improper understanding of the requirements.

Error: The flaws that exist due to improper coding and it mainly involves syntactical errors like null pointer exception in the perspective of java

error: Undesirable output whicuh negates the requirement.

Bug : Any fault in the software that is detected before the application is released

Defect : any fault or error in the software that is detected after the application is released

BUG: Un Expected Behaviour Found in Development/QA Environment before product released to Customer.
DEFECT:Same as BUG but found in realtime environment/at customer’s site.
ERROR: Any thing that is not comfirming to requirements/expected behaviour and it may be at any stage like during Development/QA or even after release of product. i.e. An Error can be a Ddefect or Bug.

Bug : Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production

Defect :Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production

A bug is a fault found before the product is released to a client and a defect is a fault that is detected after the product is released.

An error is any discrepancy between the expected value and the actually observed value.

Bug : An Error found in the development environment before the product is shipped to the customer .

Defect : An Error found in the product itself after it is shipped to the customer .

Defect: deviation of the customer requirement

Error : Error occurs in the syntax level (syntax error) or it could be in environment, application and the resource associated with testing bed setup.
*****************************************

Regards,
Govardhan Reddy M,
Software Test Engineer.
“Results matter, Efforts won’t”

#86 nitin

hi vijay….many thanx for such wonderful articles..can some1 answer my ques? i have been learning QC and have been practising to add defects in QC..when we talk about reporting a bug, is it equivalent to adding a defect in QC? and also some1 told me that we need to create a bug logging sheet for each bug v find…so how is a bug logging sheet different from bug report?

#87 Sophie

Have any one received industry questions and answers from Ashwin?, if yes, pls forward to
s_sophie@rocketmail.com

#88 michael

i need pictures now fags

#89 puviarasu

i want full details abt software test life cycle..any one give??

#90 Arun krishnan

Can u post a document, which displays compleate step of bug management in Bugzilla

#91 manio

wow!!!!!!!!!!!! got useful information

#92 Pavitra

I am a fresher for testing team in one of the MNC.So am not getting how to start my career in testing(manual testing).I have many questions like what materials to refer,what certifications to make?Can anybody help me please???If so then please mail me to pavitrabne@gmail.com

#93 Shivendra

We are using Bugzilla in our project for Bug tracking.
We have several product and under each product we have several components.

We want that bug for “each” component (for every product) should start with Bug Id = 1. How to achive this?

Currently it is based on ongoing bug id sequence last stroed for any Product/Component in the the database.

#94 savitha

hi i want to now test defect life cycle

#95 Mayasen

Hi Pavithra,

Wishes…!!

Just post your queries in this forum itself. So that anyone can answer and everyone who are with same questions can get answers.

#96 Mayasen

Hi selbaa,

I dono, based on wat you said like “Only institute with best faculty and blah blah blah…” :) How you evaluate other institutes…?

#97 Mohan

Hi all,

When Issue is found and it is marked as not a bug, is this issue should be closed or we need to just leave it.

Is “Not a Bug” a status in bug life cycle.

Let me know the exact thing what happens when an issue is marked as Not a bug.

#98 Mayasen

Statuses of BUG life cycle:

# New
# Open
# Assign
# Verified / Confirmed
# Resolved
# Deferred
# Reopened
# Duplicate
# Rejected
# Closed

***************************

“Not a Bug” gives more than one meaning; so it is not possible to derive the meaning for this status without providing proper comment.

~ Deferred (Not a bug, but change request)
~ Feature (Not a bug, additional/missing feature)
~ Not Fixable (Not a bug, exceptional)

Hope I’m right and the answer satisfies your query.

#99 Mohan

Hi Mayasen,

Tthanks for your reply
If there is an issue which is not a bug marked as “Rejected” or “Not fixable”
In this case, what needs to be the status of the bug at the time of releasing to production.

At time of release to production all the incidents or issues needs be in closed status as per my knowledge
correct me if i am wrong.

Thanks,
Mohan.

#100 james

What is the difference b/w Project Plan and Test Plan?

#101 james

What all are the securities that we provide for web testing?

#102 Vishal

@James >> When we perform security testing for a web based application we do following testing:
^ Check for cookies.
^ Copy and paste url in different browser
^ Check for session time
^ Check for secure information like password, credit card details etc.

#103 james

thanks vishal

#104 Priyanka

Hi James,

A project plan is a plan on how to execute the entire project, timelines, resources, estimates, developement, testing, documentation and almost everything that goes into making a project.

On the other hand, a test plan is a document which deals with specific activities related to testing. It will talk about resources for testing, documentation for testing, estimates for testing and so on.

Thanks.

#105 james

Thanks Priyanka.
So test plan deals with the activities related to testing(only) and project plan deals with all the activities related to the entire project(Design,Dev,testing…)

#106 Mayasen

Hi Mohan, (#103)

You are right, While delivering a product all bugs should be in closed state; but not necessary to fixed. So if there is any valid reason or with respect to the spec. some of the bugs/changes/suggestions can be closed with the resolution “Not Fixable/Rejected”

#107 Mohan

Thank Q Mayasen

#108 Mayasen

You are welcome mohan. (#111)

Hi James (#105),

Kindly check the web application testing page in this same forum. There you can find lot of information. Even i too shared some tips on that page. (239,243,244,245 and 246)

Wishes…!!!

#109 Mayasen

Hi James, (#105)

Plz check the following link for web application testing:

https://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/web-application-testing/

#110 james

thanks a lot Mayasen

#111 Mayasen

You are welcome.

#112 Prajakta Sawant

Your way of making people understand is really good. Thanks.

#113 Sourabh

Hi,
I am working as a manual test engineer in Pune from last 3.6 years.

I would like to learn Security Testing. Please let me know if you can provide any good material or any ref.

Thanks…

#114 Ashwin

Hi Friends,

After a long time i am joining the blog. Actually i was out of India for some time.

Those who want the real time interview questions please let me know. I have already sent those questions to few of you.

Regards
Ashwin

#115 KAPIL VERMA

I am a fresher for testing .Can anybody help me in searching Testing Job?

#116 Beginner

Hi ashwin,

Send me the Q&A

shankusekar@gmail.com

#117 Begin

Ashwin,

Send me the Q&A

shankusekar@gmail.com

#118 haritha

i have so many quries
1.how to begain testing in the system.
2.which topics i contenterate
how to write bug format (can u send digram)

#119 archendra yadav

hi friends ,
i m looking for the job change , i have around 1.8 year of exp in software testing in manual and automation , and having knowledge of loadrunner and qf test tools , currently i m working as a consultant engineer in cisco systems india , plz if any body have requirement in his/her org , revert me back ……..
thanks in advance …..

#120 Swati Mishra

Hi Ashwin,
Could you please forward me the FAQs for manual and web testing.

My email id is : swatimishra1688@gmail.com

#121 Swati Mishra

What is a test directory?
Please answer if anyone know about this?

#122 mouni

nice,but if i am writing this i will give more explaination about this

#123 mouni

because i am expert in testing

#124 kannan

hi ashwin, this is kannan. i am working in a mnc as manual tester. can u send the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. it will helpful for me.. my id is kannasv@gmail.com

Regards
S.Kannan

#125 Purushotam

Send me the indestrial question on my email ID

purusharma.cs@gmail.com

Thanks
Puru

#126 Purushotam

Dear Ashwin

Send me the Question & answer on my email ID

purusharma.cs@gmail.com

Thanks for help

Puru

#127 bipin

u can read my blog, its concise and covers all questions

#128 bipin

if any query plz ask to me
http://soft-engineering.blogspot.com

#129 chin

can anybody tell me what is bug tracking…….

#130 chirag

what is bug tracking…….

#131 Prashant

If you dont mind, Plz send me the question and answers.
Thanks in advance.

regds
Prashant

#132 Kapil

hi ALL

m looking for the job change , i have around 1.8 year of exp in software testing in manual and automation , and having knowledge of loadrunner and qf test tools , currently i m working as a consultant engineer in cisco systems india , plz if any body have requirement in his/her org , revert me back ……..
thanks in advance …..

regds

Kapil

#133 Faheem

Dear Ashwin

what kind of Q/ Ans generally asked to candidate with one year of experience

Send me the interview Question & answer of manual testin for 1-year of experience on my email ID

sydfaheem84@gmail.com

Thanks for your help

#134 rajesh

how many questions putout from bug life cycle in testing plzzz tell me

#135 pavan

Hi Ashwin

Send me the Q&A on my email ID

pawan.68@gmail.com

Thanks
Pavan

#136 ashok Reddy

hi friends i wannna know about how to prepare the test plan document

#137 Ashwin Channe

Hi Pavan,

By Tomorrow I will share the QA Interview questions with you.

Regards
Ashwin

#138 Ramchandra

what is difference between bug and defect? both r same or not? . . i hav confusion with this

#139 Deepak.G

Error -A Fault in the program leads to error in program
exection.
Defect-If the error caught by tester then it is called
as defect.
Bug – If the defect is accepted by the development people
then it is called as Bug.

Fault—->Error—->Defect—->Bug
Error may be generated due to syntax or symantic fault.

Different types of error are
1.syntax errors
2.symantic errors
3.Logical errors
4.Runtime errors…etc

All athe above errors will be occured during white box
testing of the application/product.

if any doubt send the mail

#140 Deepak.G

Error -A Fault in the program leads to error in program
exection.
Defect-If the error caught by tester then it is called
as defect.
Bug – If the defect is accepted by the development people
then it is called as Bug.

Fault—->Error—->Defect—->Bug
Error may be generated due to syntax or symantic fault.

Different types of error are
1.syntax errors
2.symantic errors
3.Logical errors
4.Runtime errors…etc

All athe above errors will be occured during white box
testing of the application/product.

if any doubt send the mail
rdeepak89@gmail.com

#141 Honnappa

Dear ashwin Please send testing & development qu’s.

#142 Shanmugam

Dear Ashwin,
what kind of Q/ Ans generally asked to candidate with 2 years of experience

Send me the interview Question & answer of manual testin for 1-year of experience on my email ID

sydfaheem84@gmail.com

Thanks for your help

#143 siva

hi friends plz send me testig interview questions
manul&qtp

thanks
siva

#144 srikanth

hi all,
Any questions related to manual testing u can contact me

#145 srikanth

hi all,
Any questions related to manual testing u can contact me
srikanth_jp@yahoo.com

#146 keshav

please add some more examples to all articles or topics then we easy to understand and please add some more images in some required time….thank you very much
yours….keshav

#147 prabhakaran

hii all,

This is prabhakaran,please send ppt in bug types and example

#148 yazhini

pls send some testing interview questions for freshers this is my email id yazhiniss@gmail.com

#149 selva

HI all,

I wanna to learn any automated tools like QTP, how to proceed?? anyone guide me as i am new to automated.

Regards
selva
+91-9894765147

#150 selva

I wanna to learn any automated tools like QTP, how to proceed?? anyone guide me as i am new to automated.

Regards
selva
Mobile:+91-9894765147
Email:email2selva@gmail.com

#151 Ibrahim

keep three group of people in mind
1.Customer
2.developer’s
3.Testers

*Customer of ur company gives requirements of the Project to be developed
*Managers/Developers will make an SRS of the customer requirements
*Developers:- Project Manager divide’s the task into modules and assigned to different individual or group of developers.
* Immediate after getting SRS prepared by the developers Shared with Testing Team
*Testing Manager/Lead will assign an individual/group to prepare test case document for the same until we get the release/build for testing
* Now when developers feel to share the build with testing team to test they even have send the release notes with the build
*release notes contains what features to be tested and what not in the particular release
*TM/TL will assign that task to the group of test engineers to test the build
*test engineers should test SANITY first and move on to different test Types.

More info can be updated later ;)

#152 Prabhu

Hi ashwin,

This is prabhu from chennai, i m new to testing field m trying to get testing jobs, so would u pls send me the interview question and answer and guide me.
advance in thanks

#153 Prabhu

my mail id is prabhudni@gmail.com

#154 sivakumar

Would you mind in elaborate more about bug life cycle with example.

#155 Sheela

Dear Sir,

kindly arrange and update to me the type bugs in software testing area

Waiting quick respend

regards
Sheela

#156 Gowthami

hi
can u please suggest me how we can work with Bugzilla tool

#157 Mahek

Hi………..

Frinds can u told me that how can create the Bug Repart, so tell me

#158 younas

hi
i am working as a sqa engineer. but i dont know what is the scope of sqa in future. please can anyone guid me about the field sqa. and provide me link or sites where i get any guidence. my email id is younaskhan_18@yahoo.com i will appreciate it…
thanks
younas

#159 Aashay

what is the meaning of duplicate bug?

#160 shiv

very nice

#161 Hemant

hey guys,,,is there any job opening for manual tester , please inform me at sinsinwarhemant@gmail.com…. i hv 10 months experience in it.

#162 Gopinath

hi,
Can anyone please tell me the answer for the below question
what the difference between open issue and known issue?

#163 soumya

hi all,
Am fresher , looking for a job on manual & automation(QTP)testing. Can anybody help me in searching job in Bangalore? And please send me some real time interview QS & ans.

Regards,
soumya.p

#164 kumari

hi
recently i faced this question

tell me realtime manual testing life cycle

anybody can post the answer

#165 Amita

hi Ashwin,

send me the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. it will helpful for me.. my id is meamita45@gmail.com

#166 umar

kindly can u provide me complete flow of testing techniques and tools in practical level……..plz

#167 JKT

Thank you very much… good to understand the bug cycle..

#168 sathya

hi ashwin
send me the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. it will helpful for me.. my id is sathyahabeeby@gmail.com

#169 JYOTSNA

Bug can be defined as the abnormal behavior of the software. No software exists without a bug. The elimination of bugs from the software depends upon the efficiency of testing done on the software. A bug is a specific concern about the quality of the Application under Test (AUT).

The different states of a bug can be summarized as follows:

1. New

2. Open

3. Assign

4. Test

5. Verified

6. Deferred

7. Reopened

8. Duplicate

9. Rejected

10. Closed

#170 Revathi

Hello Ashwin

Plz send me the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. It will make me to learn more about Testing. Thanks in advance.

My gmail Id: revathidotv@gmail.com

#171 Revathi

Hi Ashwin

send me the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. It will make me to learn more about testing.
Thanks in Advance.
My Id: revathidotv@gmail.com

#172 Anamika

m, km km km k k

#173 Revathi

Hi Ashwin
Send me the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. that will make me to learn more about testing. Thanks in advance.

Id: revathidotv@gmail.com

#174 Khanyi

Hi there,

Could you please provide me with a Test report template or a link that can help to create the template

#175 Pushkar

Good you explained Defect life cycle in detail,
But don’t you think you should have considered Regression testing as part of Defect life cycle.

This was a classical case when you have Water flow model but in Today’s world of Pure Agile or Agile + Waterflow model, we have to regression testing as part of defect Verification.

Again this depends on what process a company follows, but I think this is the time we should make changes in traditional followed defect Life cycle.

Your views please.

#176 disha

hi Ashwin,

send me the recent real time testing interview questions with answers. it will helpful for me.. my id is dishaydv@yahoo.com

#177 paulsan

Hi, I m paulsan
I want to become a software test engineer
I have completed my DASDM diploma from C-DAC.

Please suggest me on my email: pollsan10sh@gmail.com ,

how I can get job in software testing as a fresher?

Thanks

paulsan

#178 Sumeet

How to maintain the defects in an excel for the second round of testing?
Should the user use the same excel which was used in 1st round of testing and add the defects in the same, or to use a seperate excel file and maintain it seperately.

#179 mani

there are two types of bug in software testing
1 . GUI bug
2 . Functional bug

#180 sidharth

suppose you found a bug and reported it by taking all the necessary steps but developer is not able to reproduce the bug and you also not able to reproduce that bug.what do you do then?what action yo will take?

#181 Prashant

can any one give me example of severity and priority in all case it means high,low medium like
many thanks

#182 geetha

Hi Ashwin,
Pls send the Q&A to my email id ….gvenkitachalam@gmail.com
Thanks in advance

#183 pradeep

Hi all. Do our testing team has any portal like cloud development/some development teams will have rite. can anyone plz send to my mail if there.

#184 mani

When a tester can raise a bug

#185 soujanya

Can any one answer the quwstion plz .when a tester can raise the bug in manual testing as wel as automation too.

#186 ram

Hi ashwin

#187 Vova

Hello everybody! Can you help me with the following question: What are defect resolution types?
Thank you!

#188 mallesh

Send me those questions please

#189 mallesh

Send me those questions please

#190 sivagami

hi, i am learning software bugs . i am having 2 questions
1. what steps i have to take before reporting the bugs
2.what information shall i provide in the bug report

regards
siva

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