What is Cross Browser Testing and How to Perform It: A Complete Guide

A Complete Beginners Guide to Cross Browser Testing:

Cross Browser Testing is a type of testing to verify if an application works across different browsers as expected and degrades gracefully. It is the process of verifying your application’s compatibility with different browsers.

Many times, I have encountered an issue with a website and on calling the technical support, they simply tell me to try it in another browser? When I do, it works and I end up feeling like a total idiot, even though I earn my living working in the software industry. 

I bet this has happened to all of you, hasn’t it?

Cross browser testing tips

I always end up thinking ‘why didn’t I think of that?’ But trust me, over time I have realized it’s not my fault; it’s just that the website has not been tested extensively with respect to cross-browser compatibility testing and as an end user I have just found a bug.


We all might have observed that some websites are not properly displayed on some browsers and we just think that the website is broken. But, as soon as you open it on a different browser, the website opens up just fine. Thus this behavior explains the compatibility of a website with different browsers.

Recommended reading =>> Top 10 Browsers for PC

Each browser interprets the information on the website page differently. Thus, some browsers may lack the features that your website is trying to show and make your website look broken on that browser.

For Example, as shown below, the errors of the signup forms are not the same on both the browsers. Also, the text color, font etc., are also different if you take a look at them closely.

Cross Browser Testing

With the advancement in technology, there are several options available for browsers, and it’s not just enough to make a website work on one of the browsers.

Users should not be restricted to use any specific browser to access your application. Thus, it becomes necessary to test your website’s compatibility with different browsers. Some of the commonly used browsers include Chrome, Safari, Firefox, Internet Explorer etc.


That being the background story, I bet you all have figured out the topic of today’s discussion – Cross Browser Testing.

As is a general practice at STH, we are going to focus on the basics. We believe that any concept will make a world of sense when we ask the basic question words around like- “What, why, how, who, when, where”.

Let us do just that as we go.

What is Cross Browser Testing?

#1) Cross-browser testing is simply what its name means – that is, to test your website or application in multiple browsers- and making sure that it works consistently and as in intended without any dependencies, or compromise in Quality.

#2) This is applicable to both web and mobile applications.

#3) What kinds of applications undergo this? – Customer-facing applications are the best choice. You might wonder at this point, “Aren’t all applications customer-facing?” Well, yes. They are. However, let us look at an example.

Application 1: An application developed for a company to internally keep track of its inventory
Application 2: This is for the end-users to buy products from this company

  • It is apparent that the best idea would be to test Application 2 for browser compatibility testing since it is impossible to control what browsers/platforms/versions the end-user is going to use.
  • On the other hand, if all computers internal to the company use Windows 8 machines with Chrome browser- then there is no need to look or test for anything else with respect to Application 1.

Why is it Performed?

For that matter, why is any kind of testing done?

  • To know what is wrong and be able to fix it.
  • To enhance efficiency and user experience and thereby, business.
  • To be informed of any possible pitfalls

But specifically, if we think: What is the intent of cross-browser testing? – This is twofold.

  1. The rendition or appearance of the page in different browsers- is it the same, is it different, if one is better than the other, etc.
  2. The functionality and the working of it. (Of course!)

Who Performs this Testing?

  • Are you thinking, “There are a million browsers, versions and platforms out there- which ones to choose?” – This, thankfully, is not a decision that is the tester’s responsibility. The client, business analysis team and the marketing teams have a major role in this decision. Also, companies collect usage/traffic statistics to narrow down what browsers, environment and devices are mostly in use.
  • The entire project team should have an invested interest, time, money and infrastructure to support this endeavor.
  • The QA team can be involved in this process or it might be the design team who are keen on knowing how the application fares in multiple browsers.
  • Whether it is performed by QA or any other team- the results are interpreted by the design and development teams and the relevant changes are made.

How to Perform Cross Browser Testing?

Now we are talking!

First things first- is it done manually or using a tool?

It can surely be done manually- multiple machines, multiple OSs, Multiple browsers, multiple machines and but clearly, this leads to multiple problems, multiple investments and multiple challenges.

Cross Browser Testing types

Manual Method

In this case, a business identifies the browsers that the application must support. Testers then re-run the same test cases using different browsers and observe the application’s behavior and report bugs if any.

In this type of testing, it is not possible to cover many browsers and also, the application might not be tested on major browser versions.

Also, performing cross-browser check manually is costly and time-consuming too.

Automated Method

Cross-browser testing is basically running the same set of test cases multiple times on different browsers.

This type of repeated task is best suited for automation. Thus, it’s more cost and time effective to perform this testing by using tools.

So, lots of tools are available in the market to make this easier.

The tools help us with one or more or all of the following depending on the tool itself and the licensing types:

  1. They provide a VPN (Virtual Private machine) using which you can connect to remote machines and check the working and rendition of your JAVA, AJAX, HTML, Flash and other pages. Most of these are secure, but since you are submitting your information to a third party, a certain analysis on discretion is advised.
  2. Screenshots are provided for the pages and links submitted of how they appear in multiple browsers. This is, of course, static.
  3. Multiple browsers are synchronized with respect to operations performed on one and the results are presented browser wise.
  4. Show the rendition of a page at multiple screen resolutions
  5. When a problem is encountered, a video or screenshots are recorded to transport the problem for further analysis.
  6. Support generally is available for both web and mobile apps
  7. Private pages that require authentication to be accessed can also be tested
  8. Local, within a private network/firewall pages, can be tested too

Recommended Tools

#1) BitBar

BitBar Logo

BitBar ensures you are providing your customers with the best web and mobile experience on the latest and most popular browsers and devices with their cloud-based real device lab. Easily run manual and exploratory tests across a range of real browsers, desktop, and mobile.

Ditch the hassle and allow BitBar to reduce the burden of cross-platform testing by offloading the setup, ongoing maintenance, and browser/device upgrades.

#2) TestGrid

TestGrid Logo

TestGrid public cloud offers a combination of real devices & browsers to help users test their mobile app and website on the cloud while getting a 100% real user experience. Now engage your testing and business teams to build and execute test cases without any prerequisites of programming knowledge.

Using TestGrid’s cross-browser testing capabilities, you can make sure your end users are receiving the best user experience. While manual cross-browser testing requires time, TestGrid’s automated cross-browser testing allows you to build tests in a scriptless manner and have them run automatically across browsers in either parallel or sequence.


  • Run automated tests on a combination of hundreds of real devices & browsers.
  • Support for all the latest and legacy devices available at the time you need.
  • AI-based no-code automation generating selenium & appium-based code.
  • Performance testing to help you optimize & improve your website.
  • Catch bugs and get them resolved on the go with integrations like JIRA, Asana, slack, and more.
  • Integrate with your favorite CI/CD tool for continuous testing.

#3) Selenium

Selenium Logo

Selenium is well known for automated testing of the web-based applications. Just by changing the browser to be used for running the test cases, selenium makes it very easy to run the same test cases multiple times using different browsers.

#4) BrowserStack


BrowserStack is a cloud-based web and mobile testing platform that enables testing applications across on-demand browsers, operating systems, and real mobile devices.

#5) Browserling

It is a live interactive service that provides effortless testing for web developers and web designers.

There are different browsers and operating systems and Browserling provides quick access to all the most popular browsers on the most popular operating systems.

#6) LambdaTest

LambdaTest logo

LambdaTest is cloud-based cross-browser testing platform utilizing which user can perform automated & manual compatibility testing of their website or web app on a combination of 2000+ different browser and operating system.

Users can run Selenium automation tests on a scalable, secure, and reliable cloud-based Selenium grid and perform live interactive cross-browser testing of their public or locally hosted websites and web app on the cloud.

=> Further Reading: Complete list of Cross Browser Testing tools

When to Start This Testing?

The time to start Cross-Browser test completely depends on your testing methodology and your testing timeline.

This test can be performed:

#1) As soon as possible:

Start this testing even when a single page is ready for testing.

Test that page on each browser. When the next page is available, test that also on multiple browsers. This will increase the efforts, but it will help to fix the errors as early as possible in the life-cycle. Thus, fixing errors, in this case, is much cost-effective.

#2) When the application is complete:

Start this testing when the application development is complete.

This will test the application as a whole on different browsers. Fixing the errors won’t be as cost-effective as in the above case but it will still help in fixing the errors before releasing the application to the users.

#3) When the application is released:

This is the least favored time for performing a cross-browser test for your application. But it’s better to do it than to not do it and let the end-users have a bad experience.

After the application is released for the end-users, this testing can be performed and bugs can be fixed as a part of the change requests in the application. This is very costly and requires multiple deployments depending on the bug fixes.

Rigorous cross-browser testing can only be done when the testing team members who have knowledge of tools do this testing. High level or checking some specific browsers can also be done by business users or even developers.

This testing involves testing the application thoroughly using different browsers. Testing thoroughly includes functional and non-functional testing of the application.

In most of the companies, a product team has separate teams for functional and non-functional testing. Thus, this testing needs to be performed by the team(s) who is (are) responsible for functional and non-functional testing of the application.

For this testing, a tester needs the browsers on which the application needs to be tested.

These browsers can either be provided to the tester as:

  • Locally installed on tester’s machine.
  • A virtual machine or different machines which a tester has access to.
  • Tools which provide their own browsers and their versions for testing.
  • On cloud – so that multiple testers can use the browsers as and when required.

This testing is independent of the deployment environments. Thus, it can be done in dev, test, QA or even production environment depending upon the availability of the application in each of these environments.

What to Test?

  1. Base Functionality: Links, dialogs, menus etc.
  2. Graphical User Interface: Look and feel of the application.
  3. Response: How well the application responds to user actions.
  4. Performance: Loading of the pages within allowed the time frame.

If your application works well on one browser, that doesn’t imply that it will work well on the other browsers too. Thus, this testing helps you to ensure that an application runs on different browsers without any errors.

To identify what breaks on which browser and to fix the website accordingly we need to perform this testing. If a browser is not at all supported, then the users can easily be informed about it.

To summarize “how” to cross-browser test

#1. Traffic statistics help determine what browsers to test.

#2. A detailed analysis should be done on the AUT (Application under test) itself to determine what parts of the application or if all of it has to undergo this. It is advisable that all of it be tested on multiple browsers, but again costs and time have to be considered. A good strategy is to perform 100% testing on one browser per platform and for the other just test the most critical/widely used functionality.

#3. Once the decision of “What” to test and “Where (browsers)” is made- infrastructure decisions are to be made- do we acquire tools or perform this manually etc. Again, the cost has to be considered. Viability, risks, security concerns, people to be involved, time, acceptance criteria, issue/defect fixing schedules/process – are few things that have to be addressed.

#4. Perform the testing. The regular functional testing test cases can be used when validating the efficiency of the system. For look-and-feel/rendition test cases are not necessary.

The operation I was talking about at the beginning of this article that failed for me was an online bank transfer. I logged into my bank account, chose the amount for transfer as about one lakh and tried to perform the transfer and a servlet error was showing up no matter how many times I tried.

So if the transfer operation is chosen for browser compatibility testing, this is how the test script is going to look like.

  1. Log in to the online bank account
  2. Select the account from which the transfer is to be done
  3. Enter the transfer amount: 100,000
  4. Select payee and click “Transfer”
  5. Expected result: The transfer should be successful
  6. This will simply be run on all the browsers chosen.

Again, please note that this does not look different to a functional test case. Please check this non-functional testing article for further information on this.

#5. Report the results back to the design team, if they were not involved in the testing process. Change follows.

When is the best time to do this?

Any testing reaps the best benefits when it is done early on. Therefore, the industry recommendation is to start with it as soon as the page designs are available.

But it also can be performed when the site is fully integrated and functional.

If you have missed the bus on performing the cross-browser test during design, development and QA phases, it can still be done while the application is in production. However, this is the costliest of all and risky too.

Where is browser compatibility testing performed?

Usually, the answer to this question would be one of- Dev/QA/Production environments. But for cross-browser checking, this is not a definite and irrelevant (if I may say so). It can be done in any one or all of them.


A few points to note, 

  • Having been a QA teacher for a while now, I can tell what’s coming next and that is –the question, is it functional and non-functional testing? I think it is neither and both.
  • It also should not be confused with Cross-Platform testing, which is testing your application in multiple target environments like Windows, Linux, Mac etc. Although sometimes the two have to integrate together as some of the older browser versions might be compatible only with the older versions of the platforms.
  • It is also a continues to process as software environments, browsers and devices are evolving every day and to make sure there are no unpleasant surprises, this browser Testing should be added to the repertoire of regression suites.

As you know, each and every type of testing helps in improving the quality of the application and so does the cross-browser test too.

Cross-browser testing helps in creating a good impression on the users by providing them a consistent experience throughout the application irrespective of the browser or Operating system.

Fixing bugs is cost-effective during the early stages of the development lifecycle, and the same applies to the defects found as a part of this testing too.

This testing helps in improving your business which in turn results in Happy Customers, Happy You!!

This is yet another testament to the concept that QA field or software testing is a multi-dimensional field and there is something for everyone to excel in.

Please post your comments and questions below. We are always thrilled to hear from you!

Recommended Reading

31 thoughts on “What is Cross Browser Testing and How to Perform It: A Complete Guide”

  1. Nice tips on cross browser test.

  2. Hi ,

    Thanks for the information.

    Also, each browser has their own browser engine and they have their own concept of displaying/rendering the Web content/pages, to test these we are performing testing on different browsers. So that making sure all the functionality and CSS are correct.

    Am i correct ?

  3. Nice tips on cross browser testing. But I have one question that is, we are doing cross browser testing for checking the application functionality in different different browsers, so can we say that it is a functionality testing.

  4. Hi is cross browser testing a sub part of Usability testing?

  5. @Sharad: Yes. Perfectly put!

  6. @sangharatna: Yes, functionality test also is an integral element in the cross browser tests

  7. @Surbhi: Often the boundaries between different types of testing are murky. One intertwines with the others. We can say that usability is also an aspect to be considered in cross browser testing…but they are not the same – in the sense that they have different targets. I hope this makes sense and also, its just my take 🙂

  8. @all: Thank you for stopping by and your readership!

  9. @swati
    firstly thanks for this article.actually i have asked one question is that cross browser testing and compability testing are same or not??
    because the purpose of both are same i think.

  10. @Chetan: yes. Cross browser testing is also sometimes called Browser compatibility testing.

  11. @thnx swati mem…!!

  12. I went to have an interview in a media company few days ago. the lady who was doing the interview open a webpage which was multimedia rich and asked me what I would to do to test it. Could STH an article on this topic. Very appreciate 😉


  13. Great article..
    But following statement needs further enhancement.

    “Cross browser testing is simply what its name means- that is, to test your website or application in multiple browsers”

    Cross browser testing: testing your application on different version of same browser.
    i.e IE6, IE7 etc..
    Multi browser testing: Testing your application on multiple browser i.e Firefox, Chrome, IE etc..

    Let me know what others have to say on it..

  14. @colleen : Sure. Thank you for posting your question. We will surely publish an article on that.

  15. I have to do compatibility testing and i have 500 test cases then i have to test it on Browser,Operating system and Devices bot it should be done within 10 days what would be the approach for that.

  16. Hello Sir I just wanna know what is the difference Cross browser testing and GUI testing??? Really I am very much confused between these two 🙁

  17. Hi,

    I would like to know whether we need to create separate test cases for cross browser testing or not ?

  18. Hi ,
    Nice article.I want to know one thing that if we are testing one website on a browser ..do we have to test all the functionalities or some important ones on different browser ??
    And also what is the relation of cross browser testing with load testing?

  19. how to make out in which browser to test when changes are made in the requirement?

  20. Hi swati,

    Very nice informative article.
    I just want to confirm, can we change the browser version as well?

  21. i wanted to ask whether that

  22. Dear Swathi,

    I am Manual QA-Tester in Networking Equipment manufacturing company.I want to learn HTML and Web Application testing and all the testing related with Web application and HTML,please give me some tips and guidance.

  23. Very nice explanation

  24. can we check the applications in the cross browser testing?
    For example : In mobile we have a talkback application to read the pages similarly samething i want to use in the crossbrowser
    can i use the applications in the cross browser?

  25. Does Cross Browser Testing have any written Test cases ??
    or just done Manual without Test case ?

    what are Defect i may get in Cross Browser testing ?
    if you have any sample Cross browser test case can you please mail the sheet to vikas.kalapur@gmail.com

  26. Please can you post the criteria to do cross browser testing

  27. Could you mention the possible scenarios to be perform while cross browser testing. Also provide negative scenarios for CBT.

  28. Useful Information

  29. I have personally done cross browser testing a fair bit.
    I think what’s important is whether the content renders properly e.g. will the text be bounded or will it go right across the page? This applies to all the elements including modals. Basically, will it look ‘right’?
    As you probably know, different browsers and version would render the element differently.
    I find requirements or story support testing cross browser but mostly ad hoc testing is required or even exploratory testing.

  30. Something got to learn Thank you….

    Need Some Help on Amazon S3 Browser ? Could Some one Post that

  31. Thanks for sharing this helpful stuff we need this information while doing crass browser testing


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