What is SEI? CMM? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help?

· SEI = ‘Software Engineering Institute’ at Carnegie-Mellon University; initiated by the U.S. Defense Department to help improve software development processes.

· CMM = ‘Capability Maturity Model’, developed by the SEI. It’s a model of 5 levels of organizational ‘maturity’ that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.S. Defense Department contractors. However, many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization, and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Organizations can receive CMM ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.

Level 1 - characterized by chaos, periodic panics, and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Few if any processes in place; successes may not be repeatable.

Level 2 – software project tracking, requirements management, realistic planning, and configuration management processes are in place; successful practices can be repeated.

Level 3 – standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization; a Software Engineering Process Group is in place to oversee software processes, and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.

Level 4 – metrics are used to track productivity, processes, and products. Project performance is predictable, and quality is consistently high.

Level 5 – the focus is on continuous process improvement. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.

· ISO = ‘International Organization for Standards’ – The ISO 9001, 9002, and 9003 standards concern quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors, and they apply to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations, not just software. The most comprehensive is 9001, and this is the one most often used by software development organizations. It covers documentation, design, development, production, testing, installation, servicing, and other processes. ISO 9000-3 (not the same as 9003) is a guideline for applying ISO 9001 to software development organizations. The U.S. version of the ISO 9000 series standards is exactly the same as the international version, and is called the ANSI/ASQ Q9000 series. The U.S. version can be purchased directly from the ASQ (American Society for Quality) or the ANSI organizations. To be ISO 9001 certified, a third-party auditor assesses an organization, and certification is typically good for about 3 years, after which a complete reassessment is required. Note that ISO 9000 certification does not necessarily indicate quality products – it indicates only that documented processes are followed.


· IEEE = ‘Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ – among other things, creates standards such as ‘IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation’ (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829), ‘IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008), ‘IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans’ (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730), and others.

· ANSI = ‘American National Standards Institute’, the primary industrial standards body in the U.S.; publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).

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#1 sathya.priya on 07.12.07 at 11:46 am

what r the metrics related a software project
from qa side..?

#2 balu on 08.03.07 at 6:05 am

as for as my knowledge the matrices related a s/w project is tracablity matricec this document specifies the mappig the testcases to actual requirments i.e. the test cases are exaclty matching to the actual requirment or not

#3 Vjkt on 09.20.07 at 12:29 pm

The CMM levels are not clear.More explanation required…….

#4 naga on 10.16.07 at 8:58 am

Hi all,

Can anyone explain the difference beteween review,audit and final inspection?

#5 naga on 10.16.07 at 8:59 am

and about pcmm,cmmi also

#6 rs KUMAR on 10.23.07 at 12:11 pm


can u explain me step by step method of regression testing using QTP or Winrunner automation tools.

thanks a lot


#7 Seetha on 10.23.07 at 1:11 pm


Can someone please help me in preparing ISTQB exam?

If anyone else has appeared can you please post how the topics will be and how far it is easy to prepare?

#8 seetha on 10.23.07 at 1:12 pm

Can someone help me in calculating the Metrics?

Calculation with example and formulae (in detail)

#9 zakir on 11.23.07 at 10:42 am


You can refer to this site for ISTQB exam


#10 vamsi on 11.26.07 at 10:05 am

what is difference between QA and QC?and role of QA and AC?

#11 zakir on 11.26.07 at 10:21 am

@ vamsi

Many people are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts.

* Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives.
* Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product.
* Testing: The process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects. (Note that the “process of executing a system” includes test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.)

QA activities ensure that the process is defined and appropriate. Methodology and standards development are examples of QA activities. A QA review would focus on the process elements of a project – e.g., are requirements being defined at the proper level of detail.

QC activities focus on finding defects in specific deliverables – e.g., are the defined requirements the right requirements

Testing is one example of a QC activity, but there are others such as inspections

The difference is that QA is process oriented and QC is product oriented.

Testing therefore is product oriented and thus is in the QC domain. Testing for quality isn’t assuring quality, it’s controlling it.

Quality Assurance makes sure you are doing the right things, the right way.
Quality Control makes sure the results of what you’ve done are what you expected.

You can find more @


#12 Murthy on 12.17.07 at 11:09 am

Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes

#13 Sirisha on 12.29.07 at 7:05 am

hi friends i am searching for Testing job in bangalore plz send me any openings in weekends.

#14 Sri on 01.14.08 at 2:23 pm

hi friends
what is the differnce between Metrics and Matrix..

#15 venkata on 02.01.08 at 10:25 am

I got more info, But till i am searching for regular expression concept in any automation tool, To resolve the related issues in the same, So please let me know,


#16 venkata on 02.01.08 at 10:29 am

got more info, But till i am searching for regular expression concept by using automation tool, To resolve the related issues by using the same, So please let me know,


#17 Venkat on 02.07.08 at 12:26 pm

What is Test Factor and How to divide the Project as different modules. Once we got the SRS? help me..

#18 naz on 02.09.08 at 4:32 am

the CMM topic was not clear,i need more and real time exmple for that topic,and how a company of cmm level 2 can change to cmm leve 3?

#19 trtrr on 02.13.08 at 10:55 am

what is the difference between iso-9000 and cmm??

#20 Deepak on 02.27.08 at 4:56 am

Hi Friends,

I am doing the testing for websites (manually)

–Is there any automation tool to test the websites,

–I have been working as a manual tester for past one year, i want to switch to other company.

Can anyone tell me, what do i need to prepare to get the job in other companies.

Do i need to do any course or certification for better future

Please write me back….

#21 Ramakrishnan N on 03.05.08 at 5:43 am

Testing is an art . The skill develops with more test assignments. Explore more with all banking sites and other public sites. you can find so many bugs

Allways put yourself as an end user and test and assume different roles

#22 Shakti on 03.07.08 at 1:48 pm

Which Maturity model has 18 levels?

#23 raj on 03.12.08 at 3:49 am

can anybody explain me about bva

#24 kumar on 03.12.08 at 3:53 am

wat is six sigma

#25 Deepak on 03.12.08 at 4:35 am

The fundamental objective of the Six Sigma methodology is the implementation of a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction through the application of Six Sigma improvement projects. This is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC process (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement. The Six Sigma DMADV process (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) is an improvement system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. It can also be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement. Both Six Sigma processes are executed by Six Sigma Green Belts and Six Sigma Black Belts, and are overseen by Six Sigma Master Black Belts.

#26 Gaurav Sharma on 03.19.08 at 1:16 pm

wht is six sigma standards???

#27 sarvesh on 03.22.08 at 6:52 am

hi, i would like to learn software testing course

My qualification is diploma in mechanical engineering & 5 yrs exp in Quality

#28 Vishal Chhaperia on 04.02.08 at 8:30 am

Hi Vijay,

Pls tell me about six sigma certification

Black belt

Blue belt

How and from where to get it?
Also the institution imparting the relevent training for the certification.

mail to : bishalchaperia@gmail.com

#29 Suresh on 04.10.08 at 8:44 am

Clear information is not given on CMM & ISO as it is viewing by number of people please give required information on it. Every knows a little bit of information on it but requires understandable information

#30 george on 04.10.08 at 9:01 am

@ Vijay
One more ISO standard, ISO 27001 which is implemented in software companies for the information security.


#31 annu on 04.15.08 at 11:32 am

I suppose there is a mistake in full form of ISO in the article above ISO stands for ‘International Organization for Standardization’ and not ‘International Organization for Standards’

#32 kiran on 04.16.08 at 8:14 am

cmm topic is not clear

#33 Joe on 05.21.08 at 10:21 am

give more explaination on CMM levels

#34 Tiger2K on 05.21.08 at 12:46 pm

Hi Joe,

CMM means Capability Maturity model,Its a methodology used to refine and improve software developement process in a software company.
Their are 5 levels of CMM. Any companies which practices the rules will be called as a CMM level company. Once again depending on the level which the follow. They will be certified.
CMM is a thing of past it has been successfuly replaced by CMMI ( Capability Maturity model integration).

The CMM defines five levels of software process maturity, based on an
organization’s support for certain key process areas (KPAs).
Level 1 (initial) describes an organization with an immature or undefined process.
Level 2 (repeatable),
Level 3 (defined),
Level 4 (managed),
and Level 5(optimizing), respectively, describe organizations with successively higher levels of software process maturity.


#35 Abhishek Kumar on 05.21.08 at 1:45 pm

What is Test Metrics & Tracibility Metrics in the Software Testing. And What is the defference between them

#36 Suresh Balakrishnan on 06.05.08 at 10:30 am

Hi Abhishek,

I have mentioned What is Test Metrics & Tracibility Metrics as given below:

I think, due to similarity in phonetics the words Metrics and Matrix cause confusion. Due to confusion, few of us use these words interchangeably. So to avoid confusion and to have clarity, I would like to explain the difference between them and provide few examples.


Metric is a measurement. We can classify Software Quality metrics as Product Quality metrics and Process Quality metrics.

Product Quality Metrics describe the characteristics (i.e. Size, complexity, performance Quality level of the product). For your reference, I mentioned a list of product quality metrics here (not an exhaustive list):

Mean time to failure

Defect density

Customer Problems

Customer Satisfaction

Fix backlog

Fix response time

Defective fixes

Process Quality Metrics Used for improving the software development and maintenance process. For your reference, I mentioned a list of process quality metrics here (not an exhaustive list):

Phase-based defect removal pattern

Defect removal efficiency

Defect arrival pattern

Above given metrics are just a few from a huge list. We will discuss basic metrics in future blog entries. Where as in next blog entry we will discuss about test matrix and metrics can be measured using the same.


Matrix is a data representation and data collection mechanism. Then we use collected data to derive metrics. For your reference, I mentioned a list of Matrix here (not an exhaustive list):

Requirements Traceability Matrix

Functional Traceability Matrix

Test Matrix


#37 Beena on 06.11.08 at 2:24 pm

Software s also having standards…!!
While measuring it wht wil they consider, like the application’s compatabiity r the application’s performance r somthing else. Pls tel me wht all they will consider?

#38 Gayatri on 06.20.08 at 11:37 am

I think IEEE,ISO and ANSI standard developers but CMM and SEI and Process developers. What do you thing?

#39 sreedhar on 08.12.08 at 12:28 pm

I want knw how i have intiate the CMM level in my organization plzzzzzz ,explain me what are the basic steps i need to take.

#40 sreedhar on 08.12.08 at 12:36 pm

plzzzzzzzzzz reply me as soon as possible……..

my gmail id …

#41 baba on 09.01.08 at 1:10 pm

Plz any body can give me the limitations of QTP

#42 SACHIN on 09.11.08 at 6:49 am


#43 Metrics,matrix on 10.15.08 at 7:41 am

Please give me metrics/matrics and their values


#44 HariPrasad on 10.15.08 at 7:42 am

Give me details of matrics

#45 SUresh Babu on 12.31.08 at 8:40 am

There is no technical term called “matrics” in software industry. It is Metrics or matrix only. I think Suresh Balakrishnan [Note no 36] has given some good comment over for metrics. In addition to that in the management level they will include schedule variance, effort variance, productivity etc…

For Sridhar [note no 39] if you are going to start your groundwork for CMMi it would be better to get some consultation from the certifying body/agencies like KPMG,DNV, BVQi ,intertex etc..They will guide you with the quality manuals and standards.

My personal opinion is, if you are not having any other certification like ISO 9000:2000 first get those basic certifications and then proceed .So that you can easily achieve your goals.

Suresh babu

#46 ISO 9001 on 03.24.09 at 4:23 am

I think, it’s true what you say

#47 Name on 04.06.09 at 3:01 pm

hello everybody,
here everybody is asking the questions but only a few answers, seems like everybody visits this site to put questions only.

#48 Ashok kumar kannojiya on 06.28.09 at 6:02 am

plz tell me detail of 4p of planning

#49 Anamika on 08.03.09 at 6:02 pm

Please post some articles on How to prepare MIS management information systems reports.

#50 subhakar on 11.10.09 at 12:41 pm

The deference between ISO & CMMI
ISO : What you have documented you should follow that
CMMI: SEI(Software Engineering Institiute) has given Generic gols,Specific gols and Specific practices based on that you should imlement.

#51 subhakar on 11.10.09 at 12:45 pm

Hi Gayatri,
as per your question its wrong

SEI (Software Engineering Institute) it is provindg the cmmi

#52 PRIYA AHIRE on 12.30.09 at 11:16 am

I want to have the standard for SEI CMM Level 3 certification. Which are the Certifying Bodies doing this certification. Pl. let me know.What is the preparation required , if a organization wishes to be certified to this standard?
Thanks & Regards
Priya Ahire

#53 Suresh on 12.31.09 at 4:51 am

There are plenty of certifying agencies and freelancers as well for CMMI L3 certification. The agencies are like KPMG, TUV, and DNV etc…You can search for SEI registered freelancers as well.

The approximate process for CMMI is like this,

1. Find the consultation agency,
2. Find the certification body,
3. Perform Gap analysis,
4. Perform Process definition,
5. Implementation,
6. Assessment [Stage 1, 2…],
7. Final assessment.


#54 Suresh on 12.31.09 at 4:52 am

Hi Priya
There are plenty of certifying agencies and freelancers as well for CMMI L3 certification. The agencies are like KPMG, TUV, and DNV etc…You can search for SEI registered freelancers as well.

The approximate process for CMMI is like this,

1. Find the consultation agency,
2. Find the certification body,
3. Perform Gap analysis,
4. Perform Process definition,
5. Implementation,
6. Assessment [Stage 1, 2…],
7. Final assessment.


#55 mani on 04.20.10 at 7:12 am

differents b/t sei-cmm and iso9000

#56 San on 04.27.10 at 7:29 am

Hi Mani,

CMMi and ISO both are the basically quality certifications for organizations. ISO standards are generic, any of the company can implement the QMS i.e. ISO 9001:2008. There are only 8 standards in ISO9001:2008. ISO conduct surveillance audit every year and recertification audit after 3 years to ensure whether the organization is working as per the standards defined in organization’s Quality Management System.

Similarly in CMMi Level 5, there are 22 process areas and organization has to follow the same. There are accessors, who access the the organization’s processes. CMMi framework is very wise, you will have to go through with the process areas to understand in detail.

Basically these standards or process areas are just the guidelines for the organization to work.

#57 Sarin on 08.04.10 at 4:45 am

Hi balu

Matrix and metrics are different

#58 P.Jayapreetha Lovelyn on 08.06.10 at 11:12 am

I am studying M.E Software engineering……Shall I become a member of SEI

#59 Deepa on 01.30.11 at 10:29 am

as cmm includes 5 levels of standards, what are the levels involved in iso for software development?…….Please let me know if any one knows exactly.

#60 Tokukita Zdotaki on 03.09.11 at 2:13 am

mmmm… very complex.,

#61 Chynna on 04.12.11 at 1:34 am

TYVM you’ve solved all my probemsl

#62 ravikumar on 07.26.11 at 3:15 pm

latest iso standard ,please provide the answer

#63 nageswararao on 11.21.11 at 8:52 am

hi friends

hi i want know about testing sofware quality

#64 teja on 02.21.12 at 2:34 am

hi friends
plz let me know,the difference btwen cmmi and sei cmm…
sei cmm is better than cmmi….?

give me rpy asap
thanking you

#65 Narendrakumar on 10.29.12 at 5:53 pm

Hi to all,
pls, dont ask a question to clear particular doubts as here, good to search your questions on search engines.It helps will you get more answers and logics of your questions.

#66 vamsi on 04.10.13 at 5:14 am


there is no difference between CMM and SEI CMMI , SEI is a certification body where it will give the certification from Carnegie Mellon University U.S.A. CMM is now changed into CMMI where it was updated.

#67 Kranthi on 10.28.13 at 3:56 pm

HI All,

Hello friends I have manual testing knowledge and want to learn automation well any one suggest me is it better to take complete course of testing tools or shal i go for live project practically pls mail me your valuable suggestions on eru.kranthi@gmail.com


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