What Is End to End Testing: E2E Testing Framework with Examples
End-to-end testing is a Software testing methodology to test an application flow from start to end. The purpose of End to end testing is to simulate the real user scenario and validate the system under test and its components for integration and data integrity.
Nobody wants to be known for their mistakes and their negligence, and the same is the case with the Testers. When the Testers are assigned an application to test, from that moment, they take the responsibility and the application also acts as a platform to show their practical and technical testing knowledge.
So, to describe it technically, to ensure that testing is done completely, it is necessary to perform “End to End testing”.
In this tutorial, we will learn what is End to End Testing is, how it’s done, why it’s necessary, what are the matrices used, how to create an end to end specific test cases, and a few other important aspects also. We will also learn about System testing and compare it with End to End tests.
Real also => End to End Training on a Live Project – Free Online QA Training.
What You Will Learn:
What is End to End Testing?
End-to-end testing is a Software testing methodology to test an application flow from start to end. The purpose of this testing is to simulate the real user scenario and validate the system under test and its components for integration and data integrity.
It is performed from start to finish under real-world scenarios like communication of the application with hardware, network, database, and other applications.
The main reason for carrying out this testing is to determine various dependencies of an application as well as ensure that accurate information is communicated between various system components. It is usually performed after the completion of functional and system testing of any application.
Let us take an example of Gmail:
End to End Verification of a Gmail account will include the following steps:
- Launching a Gmail login page through URL.
- Logging into Gmail account by using valid credentials.
- Accessing Inbox. Opening Read and Unread emails.
- Composing a new email, reply or forward an email.
- Opening Sent items and checking emails.
- Checking emails in the Spam folder
- Logging out of Gmail application by clicking ‘logout’
End-To-End Testing Tools
#1) Avo Assure
Avo Assure is a 100% scriptless test automation solution that helps you test end-to-end business processes with a few clicks of the buttons.
Being heterogeneous, it enables you to test applications across the web, windows, mobile platforms (Android and IOS), non-UI (web services, batch jobs), ERPs, Mainframe systems, and associated emulators through one solution.
With Avo Assure, you can:
- Achieve end-to-end test automation because the solution is no-code and enables testing across diverse applications.
- Get a bird’s eye view of your entire testing hierarchy, define test plans, and design test cases through the Mindmaps feature.
- With a click of a button, enable accessibility testing for your applications. It supports WCAG standards, Section 508, and ARIA.
- Leverage integration with various SDLC and continuous integration tools like Jira, Sauce Labs, ALM, TFS, Jenkins, QTest, and more.
- Schedule execution during non-business hours.
- Execute test cases in a single VM independently or in parallel with the Smart Scheduling and Execution feature.
- Analyze reports quickly as they are now available as screenshots and videos of the execution process.
- Reuse 1500+ pre-built keywords and 100+ SAP-specific keywords to expedite testing further.
- Avo Assure is certified for integration with SAP S4/HANA and SAP NetWeaver.
testRigor gives manual QA testers the ability to create complex end-to-end test automation with plain English language statements. You can easily build tests spanning multiple browsers, including mobile devices, API calls, emails, and SMS – all in one test with no coding.
Key points that put testRigor on the list are:
- No technical knowledge of code, Xpath, or CSS selectors is required to create complex test automation.
- testRigor is the only company that’s solving the test maintenance problem.
- Manual QA is empowered to own part of the test automation process.
With testRigor, you can:
- Build test cases 15x faster with plain English.
- Reduce 99.5% of your test maintenance.
- Test multiple browsers and operating system combinations in addition to Android and iOS device testing.
- Schedule and execute tests with one click of a button.
- Save time by executing test suites in minutes instead of days.
Virtuoso is an AI-augmented test automation solution that makes in-sprint, end-to-end test automation a reality and not just an aspiration. With a codeless, scripted approach, speed and absolute accessibility are possible without losing any of the power and flexibility of code. Maintenance is stripped down to near zero with tests that heal themselves – say farewell to flaky.
Out-of-the-box visual regression, snapshot, and localization test capabilities, together with an API client, can then leverage Virtuoso’s core functional UI testing to offer the most comprehensive and user-centric end-to-end testing.
- Any browser, any device
- Combined Functional UI and API testing.
- Visual regression
- Snapshot testing
- Accessibility testing
- Localization testing
- A comprehensive tool for all your end-to-end testing needs.
How End-To-End Test Work?
To understand a bit more, let us find out How it works?
Take an example of the Banking Industry. Few of us must have tried out Stocks. When a Demat account holder, purchases any share, a particular percentage of an amount is to be given to the broker. When the shareholder sells that share, whether he gets profit or loss, a particular percentage of the amount is then again given to the broker. All these transactions are reflected and managed in accounts. The whole process involves Risk Management.
When we look at the above example, keeping the End-to-End test in mind, we will find that the whole process includes multiple numbers as well as different levels of transactions. The whole process involves many systems that can be difficult to test.
E2E Testing Methods
#1) Horizontal Test:
This method is used very commonly. It occurs horizontally across the context of multiple applications. This method can easily occur in a single ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) application. Take an example of a web-based application of an online ordering system. The whole process will include accounts, inventory status of the products as well as shipping details.
#2) Vertical Test:
In this method, all the transactions of any application are verified and evaluated right from the start to finish. Each individual layer of the application is tested starting from top to bottom. Take an example of a web-based application that Uses HTML codes for reaching web servers. In such cases, API is required to generate SQL codes against the database. All these complex computing scenarios will require proper validation and dedicated testing. Thus this method is much more difficult.
‘White Box testing’ as well as ‘Black Box Testing’ both are associated with this testing. Or in other words, we can say, this is the combination of benefits of both white box testing and black-box testing. Depending on the type of software being developed, at different levels, both the testing techniques i.e. white box and black box testing are used as and when required. Basically, End to End test performs functional as well as the architectural approach for any software or programs to validate system functions.
The Testers like End to End verification because writing test cases from the user’s perspective and in a real-world scenario, can avoid the two common mistakes .i.e. ‘missing a bug’ and ‘writing test cases that do not verify real-world scenarios’. This provides testers, an immense sense of accomplishment.
Below enlisted are a few guidelines that should be kept in mind while designing the test cases for performing this type of testing:
- Test cases should be designed from the end user’s perspective.
- Should focus on testing some existing features of the system.
- Multiple scenarios should be considered for creating multiple test cases.
- Different sets of test cases should be created to focus on multiple scenarios of the system.
As we execute any test cases, similar is the case with this testing. If the test cases are ‘Pass’ i.e. we get the expected output, it is said that the system has successfully passed the End to End test. Likewise, if the system does not produce the desired output, then a retest of a test case is required keeping in mind the areas of failure.
Why Do We Perform E2E Testing?
In the present scenario, as also shown in the diagram above, a modern software system comprises its interconnection with multiple sub-systems. This has made modern software systems a very complicated one.
These sub-systems we are talking about can be within the same organization or in many cases can be of different organizations also. Also, these sub-systems can be somewhat similar or different from the current system. As a result, if there is any failure or fault in any sub-system, it can adversely affect the whole Software system leading to its collapse.
These major risks can be avoided and can be controlled by this type of testing:
- Keep a check and perform system flow verification.
- Increase the test coverage areas of all the subsystems involved with the software system.
- Detects issues, if any with the subsystems and thus increases the productivity of the whole software system.
Below mentioned are the few activities that are included in the end to end process:
- A thorough study of requirements to perform this testing.
- Proper set up of test environments.
- A thorough study of Hardware and Software requirements.
- Descriptions of all subsystems as well as the main software system involved.
- Enlist the roles and responsibilities for all the systems and subsystems involved.
- Testing methods used under this testing as well as standards that are followed, its described.
- Test cases designing as well as tracing requirement matrix.
- Record or save the input and output data for each system.
E2E Testing Design Framework
We will look into all the 3 categories one by one:
#1) User Functions: Following actions should be performed as a part of building User Functions:
- Listing features of the software systems and their interconnected sub-systems.
- For any function, keep track of the actions performed as well as Input and Output data.
- Find the relations, if any between different Users functions.
- Find out the nature of different user functions .i.e. if they are independent or are reusable.
#2) Conditions: Following activities should be performed as a part of building conditions based on user functions:
- For each and every user function, a set of conditions should be prepared.
- Timing, Data conditions, and other factors that affect user functions can be considered as parameters.
#3) Test Cases: Following factors should be considered for building test cases:
- For every scenario, one or more test cases should be created to test each and every functionality of the user functions.
- Every single condition should be enlisted as a separate test case.
Moving to the next important activities or metrics involved in this testing:
- Status of Test case preparation: This can be tracked in the form of a graph to represent the progress of the planned test cases that are under preparation.
- Weekly tracking of Test progress: This includes a week-wise representation of the test cases execution progress. It can be reflected through percentage representation for pass, fail, executed, not executed, invalid, etc cases.
- Status and detailed report for Defects: The Status report should be prepared on a daily basis to show the test case execution status as well as defects found and logged as per their severity. Weekly, the percentage of open and closed defects should be calculated. Also, based on defect severity and priority, defects status should be tracked on a weekly basis.
- Test environment: This keeps a track of the test environment time duration allotted as well as the test environment time actually used while performing this testing.
We have almost seen all aspects of this testing. Now let us differentiate “System Testing” and “End to End testing”. But before that let me give you a basic idea of “System testing” so that we can easily differentiate between the two forms of software testing.
System testing is the form of testing which includes a series of different tests whose purpose is to perform the complete testing of the integrated system. System testing is basically a form of black-box testing where the focus is on the external working of the software systems from the user’s point of view keeping real-world conditions as consideration.
System testing involves:
- Testing a fully integrated application including the main system.
- Determine the components that interact with one another and within the system.
- Verify the desired output on the basis of the input provided.
- Analyzing the user’s experience while using various aspects of the application.
Above we have seen the basic description of System testing to understand it. Now, we will look out the differences between “System Testing” and “End to End testing”.
|S.No.||End to End Testing||System Testing|
|1||Validates both the main Software system as well as all the interconnected Sub-Systems.||As per the specifications provided in Requirement document, it just validates the software system.|
|2||The main emphasis is on verifying the end to end testing process flow.||The main emphasis is on verifying and checking features and functionalities of the software system.|
|3||While performing testing, all the interfaces including the backend processes of the software system is taken under consideration.||While performing testing, only the functional and the non- functional areas and their features are considered for testing.|
|4||End to End testing is executed /performed after the completion of System testing of any software system.||System testing is basically performed after the completion of integration testing of software system.|
|5||Manual testing is mostly preferred for performing end to End testing as these form of testing involves testing of external interfaces also which can be very difficult to automate at times. And will make the whole process very complex.||Both manual and automation testing can be performed as a part of System testing.|
Hope you learned various aspects of End to End tests like their processes, metrics, and the difference between System testing and End to End testing.
For any commercial release of the software, End to End verification plays an important role as it tests the entire application in an environment that exactly imitates real-world users like network communication, database interaction, etc.
Mostly, the end to End test is performed manually as the cost of automating such test cases is too high to be afforded by every organization. This is not only beneficial for system validation but can be also considered useful for testing external integration.
Let us know if you have questions about the end-to-end test.
17 thoughts on “What Is End to End Testing: E2E Testing Framework with Examples”
hi who perform end to end test? is it in UAT by client?
Good post on “End to End Testing”.
I would perform by the Tester or by the QA team.
client will not include this in UAT.
Whats is the difference between System testing and SIT (system integration testing)
Initially the article started in a nice way but at the end talking about differences. Better to include with one example.. liKe how end to end is covered
I wish, I had the time to really disect this article. So much at the beginning is wrong.
You do not TEST to discover dependencies. You should be in the loop with the rest of the team and aware of how everything fits together, even before you test, because that will give you way more ideas to test.
And End to End Testing is far more than conformance to requirements. That definition of quality was outmoded/outdated in the 90s when Colleges were still peddling it in Programming courses.
Hi, Thanks for posting this article. Just want to add one point here is that sometimes ‘End-to-End Testing’ also called ‘System-Integration Testing’ (SIT) where we have to test interfaces between all connected systems.
Very informative article. But as well as knowing the difference between system and end to end testing, many people need to learn the difference between a colon and a question mark.
How do I do it?
How to do it:
Good article….but the more important to perform end to end testing is its also important to know when not to perform it…..in my short career of 5 yrs i have seen testers perform end to end even for small changes where regression is needed….testers need to be brave enough if a uat or prod issue is found in such changes and mention that it was out of scope to the client or senior managers…..as i believe as a tester our aim is to deliver defect free product but we should also see that our efforts dont get wasted and put in more efforts than needed just because we fear our clients
Would this be the ideal test level/type to use with an Enterprise that consists of many integrated sub-applications/systems? In most descriptions, ‘E2E’ is in reference to (1) or very few integrated systems.
Also, would more exploratory techniques be preferred for this type of test?
Thanks for the brilliant article on E2E testing.
One QQ – when exactly is the E2E testing conducted (which phase of STLC) and is E2E scenarios same as the Regression test scenarios.
I am new in this filed.
can u tell me about inbuilt software testing tools for particular browser of help full of testing.
Amazing post! Hello from Latvia!
Nice post thank you!
I’m writing my Thesis about automation of End-to-End Tests and wanted to ask if I can use this article as reference for my work? Is it against the copyrights when I’m referencing to this article??
thank you in advance.
Could someone provide me with a sample Oracle Fusion SIT/ UAT/ Environment Readiness/ Cutover plan for review of required tasks?
Great article, that said there are quite poweful engineer centric framework that makes all this process eaasy and managlble: i.e. endly: https://github.com/viant/endly/
Großartiger Artikel, danke. Ich hatte die UIZ (www.webdesign-bpo.de) beauftragt, alle Aufgaben im Zusammenhang mit End-to-End-Software zu erledigen. Die Software wurde individuell für mein Unternehmen erstellt und getestet. Ich konnte mich nicht beschweren.