ISTQB Exam Questions on Equivalence Partitioning and Boundary Value Analysis

It's important that all testers should be able to write test cases based on Equivalence Partitioning and Boundary Value Analysis. Taking this into consideration ISTQB is having significant importance for this topic in the ISTQB Foundation level Certificate exam. Good practice and logical thinking can make it very easy to solve these questions.

ISTQB Exam Questions on Equivalence Partitioning and Boundary Value Analysis

What is Equivalence Partitioning?
Equivalence Partitioning is a method for deriving test cases. In this method, equivalence classes (for input values) are identified such that each member of the class causes the same kind of processing and output to occur.

The values at the extremes (start/end values or lower/upper-end values) of such class are known as Boundary values. Analyzing the behavior of a system using such values is called Boundary Value Analysis (BVA).

Here are few sample questions for practice from ISTQB exam papers on Equivalence Partitioning and BVA. (Ordered: Simple to little complex)

Question #1)
One of the fields on a form contains a text box that accepts numeric values in the range of 18 to 25. Identify the invalid Equivalence class.

a)    17
b)    19
c)    24
d)    21

Solution:
The text box accepts numeric values in the range 18 to 25 (18 and 25 are also part of the class). So this class becomes our valid class. But the question is to identify invalid equivalence class. The classes will be as follows:
Class I: values < 18   => invalid class
Class II: 18 to 25       => valid class
Class III: values > 25 => invalid class

17 fall under an invalid class. 19, 24 and 21 falls under valid class. So the answer is ‘A’

Question #2)
In an Examination, a candidate has to score a minimum of 24 marks in order to clear the exam. The maximum that he can score is 40 marks.  Identify the Valid Equivalence values if the student clears the exam.

a)    22,23,26
b)    21,39,40
c)    29,30,31
d)    0,15,22

Solution:
The classes will be as follows:
Class I: values < 24   => invalid class
Class II: 24 to 40       => valid class
Class III: values > 40 => invalid class

We have to identify Valid Equivalence values. Valid Equivalence values will be there in a Valid Equivalence class. All the values should be in Class II. So the answer is ‘C’

Question #3)
One of the fields on a form contains a text box that accepts alphanumeric values. Identify the Valid Equivalence class
a)    BOOK
b)    Book
c)    Boo01k
d)    Book

Solution:
Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabets and numbers. Hence we have to choose an option which has both of these. A valid equivalence class will consist of both alphabets and numbers. Option ‘c’ contains both alphabets and numbers. So the answer is ‘C’

Question #4)
The Switch is switched off once the temperature falls below 18 and then it is turned on when the temperature is more than 21. When the temperature is more than 21. Identify the Equivalence values which belong to the same class.

a)    12,16,22
b)    24,27,17
c)    22,23,24
d)    14,15,19

Solution:
We have to choose values from the same class (it can be a valid or invalid class). The classes will be as follows:

Class I: less than 18 (switch turned off)
Class II: 18 to 21
Class III: above 21 (switch turned on)

Only in Option ‘c’, all values are from one class. Hence the answer is ‘C’. (Please note that the question does not talk about valid or invalid classes. It is only about values in the same class)

Question #5)
A program validates a numeric field as follows: values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected. Which of the following input values cover all of the equivalence partitions?

a. 10,11,21
b. 3,20,21
c. 3,10,22
d. 10,21,22

Solution:
We have to select values that fall in all the equivalence class (valid and invalid both). The classes will be as follows:

Class I: values <= 9   => invalid class
Class II: 10 to 21       => valid class
Class III: values >= 22 => invalid class

All the values from option ‘c’ fall under all different equivalence classes. So the answer is ‘C’.

Question #6)
A program validates a numeric field as follows: values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected. Which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?

a. 9,10,11,22
b. 9,10,21,22
c. 10,11,21,22
d. 10,11,20,21

Solution:
We have already come up with the classes as shown in question 5. The boundaries can be identified as 9, 10, 21, and 22. These four values are in option ‘b’. So the answer is ‘B’

Question #7)
In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax-free.
The next £1500 is taxed at 10%.
The next £28000 after that is taxed at 22%.
Any further amount is taxed at 40%.

To the nearest whole pound, which of these groups of numbers fall into three DIFFERENT equivalence classes?
a)    £4000; £5000; £5500
b)    £32001; £34000; £36500
c)    £28000; £28001; £32001
d)    £4000; £4200; £5600

Solution:
The classes will be as follows:
Class I   : 0 to £4000          => no tax
Class II  : £4001 to £5500   => 10 % tax
Class III : £5501 to £33500 => 22 % tax
Class IV : £33501 and above => 40 % tax

Select the values which fall in three different equivalence classes. Option ‘d’ has values from three different equivalence classes. So the answer is ‘D’.

Question #8)
In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax-free.
The next £1500 is taxed at 10%.
The next £28000 after that is taxed at 22%.
Any further amount is taxed at 40%.

To the nearest whole pound, which of these is a valid Boundary Value Analysis test case?
a)    £28000
b)    £33501
c)    £32001
d)    £1500

Solution:
The classes are already divided in question # 7. We have to select a value which is a boundary value (start/end value). 33501 is a boundary value. So the answer is ‘B’.

Question #9)
Given the following specification, which of the following values for age are in the SAME equivalence partition?

If you are less than 18, you are too young to be insured.
Between 18 and 30 inclusive, you will receive a 20% discount.
Anyone over 30 is not eligible for a discount.
a)    17, 18, 19
b)    29, 30, 31
c)    18, 29, 30
d)    17, 29, 31

Solution:
The classes will be as follows:
Class I: age < 18       => not insured
Class II: age 18 to 30 => 20 % discount
Class III: age > 30     => no discount

Here we cannot determine if the above classes are valid or invalid, as nothing is mentioned in the question. (But according to our guess we can say I and II are valid and III is invalid. But this is not required here.) We have to select values that are in the SAME equivalence partition. Values from option ‘c’ fall in the same partition. So the answer is ‘C’.

These are a few sample questions for practice from ISTQB papers. We will continue to add more ISTQB question papers with answers in the coming posts.

About the Author:
This is a guest article by “N. Sandhya Rani”. She is having around 4 years of experience in Software Testing mostly in Manual Testing. She is helping many aspirant software testers to clear the ISTQB testing certification exam.

Put your questions related to the ISTQB exam in the comment section below.


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188 thoughts on “ISTQB Exam Questions on Equivalence Partitioning and Boundary Value Analysis”

  1. hi please send me the dumps for ISTQB exam for 2012, im re-taking the exam in early May , I failed by 3 on my first attempt and need any help i can find to help me pass thanks
    my e-mail address is harmstone@msn.com

  2. Hi. I got problem with some questions. Can anyone help me to understand?

    1.Distinguish between the root cause of a defect and its effects?

    2.Give reasons why testing isnecessary by giving examples?

    3.Describe why testing is part of quality assurance and give examples of how testing contributes to higher quality.?

  3. I have gone through sample questions that come under ISTQB. they were easy only. how about the ISTQB exam?? Will it be having more coding part. i am willing to take ISTQB. But i am from non CS background. So, please advice

  4. Question : Postal rates for ‘light letters’ are 25p up to l0g, 35p up to 50g plus an extra l0p for each additional 25g up to l00g.
    Which test inputs (in grams) would be selected using equivalence partitioning?
    a. 8,42,82,102
    b. 4,15, 65, 92,159
    c. 10,50,75,100
    d. 5, 20, 40, 60, 80
    Can anybody solve the question in detail and send it to my mail.

  5. simple question?

    in BVA why some time we choose input data from inside boundry while some time the boundray itself e.g: 1 to 100 so input 0,1,100,101 and some time 0,2, 101

    i am getting confused

  6. Hi,

    Can someone guide me on the calculation below as im a newbie here. Do we ignore the % of tax??

    Kindly help.. Thank you
    ——In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
    An employee has £4000 of salary tax free.
    The next £1500 is taxed at 10%.
    The next £28000 after that is taxed at 22%.
    Any further amount is taxed at 40%.

    To the nearest whole pound, which of these is a valid Boundary Value Analysis test case?
    a) £28000
    b) £33501
    c) £32001
    d) £1500

  7. Priya,

    Tax % is there to differentiate the range of inputs. First put the above question in a proper range. like,

    salary Range — Tax %
    0-4000
    4001-5500
    5501-33500
    33501-remaining

  8. Priya,

    Tax % is there to differentiate the range of inputs. First put the above question in a proper table format. like,

    salary Range — Tax %
    0-4000 –0%
    4001-5500 –10%
    5501-33500 –22%
    33501-remaining –40%

    So the valid BAV s are 0,4000,4001,5500,5501,33500,33501.

    In the above choices only 33501 is there so that is the answer

  9. owasis,

    You should understand the question first.

    e.g: 1 to 100

    for the above range
    Valid Boundary values are 1,100
    Invalid boundary values are 0,101
    valid boundary values and equivalence are 1,2,100
    for testing BVA values are 0,1,100,101
    for testing equvalence and BVA 0,1,100,2,101 or 0,2, 101
    hope you are clear now. Its all depends on the question

  10. Where are the answers for the questions posted by G.Mallikarjun on 07.27.09 at 12:26 pm ?

    Please send me the answers or post it here so that we can check if we got the correct answers.

    Thanks!

  11. Hi Team,

    I’m taking up ISTQB exam.. And as per the study doc’s are concerned, I’m much in need of mock papers for below mentioned chapter’s….

    Chapter 1, Chapter 4, Chapter 5.

    Kindly send me out the dumps…

    My mail id would be: tejkumargk@gmail.com

    Thanks & Regards
    Tej

  12. Hi

    Anyone can explain about statement and branch coverage with examples like BVA&EP.

    Pl explain these kind of questins,( I want explanation )
    Q27. Minimum Tests Required for Statement Coverage and Branch Coverage :-

    Read P
    Read Q
    If p+q > 100
    thenPrint “Large”End if
    If p > 50 then
    Print “pLarge”
    End if

    a) Statement coverage is 2, Branch Coverage is 2
    b) Statement coverage is 3 and branch coverage is 2
    c) Statement coverage is 1 and branch coverage is 2
    d) Statement Coverage is 4 and Branch coverage is 2

    Thanks
    Sudha

  13. Hey, let’s compare the answers for Q1-58 posted by Mallikarjun……
    Here are my answers. Will appreciate if you compare with mine and mention those that are different or doubtful:

    1c
    2c
    3b
    4b
    5a
    6b or d….not sure
    7c
    8b
    9c
    10b
    11a
    12d
    13c…..not sure
    14d
    15d
    16d
    17b
    18a
    19d
    20c
    21d
    22c
    23a
    24c
    25b
    26a
    27…..99 b
    28c
    29…?
    30b
    31c…?
    32d
    33c
    34d…?
    35d
    36b
    37b
    38c
    39a
    40a….?
    41b
    42a….?
    43…..?
    44c
    45…..2 test cases
    46b
    47b
    48…..?
    49d
    50a
    51d
    52b
    53….?
    54c
    55b
    56d
    57a
    58a
    ================================

  14. Amendments to the above answers:

    Q2 is wrong….all are black box tech
    Q29 ….c
    Q27…..d
    Q36…..I am sure a and b are right but not sure about c so either the choices are wrong or the right answer is d
    Q43…..c
    Q48…..d

  15. Hi sandhya,

    I am really thankful to u as i am following your ISTQB question pattern only and wish to clear the exam soon.

  16. Hello
    How can I can some practical experience on software testing before I start working.
    Is there any help around?

  17. Sir in the 7 th qstn which u given the qstns on BVA& EVP,
    the question and explanation is not matching….whether it is wrong or correct i am not understanding please help me
    regards,
    vaseem

  18. Please can anyone tell me all ans and send me on my email id :- gupta.mohit09@gmail.com

    Thanks in advance

    1:- Which is not functional testing technique?

    a. BVA
    b. Decision table
    c. Regression testing
    d. None of the above

    2:-One weakness of BVA and Equivalence partitioning is

    a. They are not effected
    b. They do not explore combinations of input circumstances
    c. They explore combinations of input circumstances
    d. None of the above

    3:- Decision table are useful in situation where

    a. An Action is taken under varying set of conditions
    b. Number of combinations of actions are taken under varying set of conditions
    c. No action is taken under varying set of conditions
    d. None of the above

    4:-BVA is based upon
    a. Single fault assumption theory
    b. Multiple fault assumption theory
    c. Both of above
    d. None of the above

    5:-“Causes” and “Effects” are related to
    a. Input and Output
    b. Output and Input
    c. Destination and Source
    d. None of the above

    6:-Which of the following tool you will use to detect Memory Leak

    a. Static Analysis
    b. Coverage Analysis
    c. Dynamic Analysis
    d. Memory Analysis

    7:- Functionality of software is tested by

    a. White Box Testing
    b. Black Box Testing
    c. Regression Testing
    d. None of the above

    8:- During Validation

    a. Process is checked
    b. Product is checked
    c. Developer’s performance is equivalent
    d. The Customer checks the product

    9:- Which of the following could be a reason for a failure?

    1. Testing fault
    2. software fault
    3. Design fault
    4. Environment fault
    5. Documentation fault

    a:- 2 is a valid reason ;1,3,4,4 are not
    b:- 1,2,3,4 are valid reasons; 5 is not
    c:- 1,2,3 are valid reasons; 4&5 are not
    d:- all of them are valid reason for failure

  19. Hi Sir ,

    Please sir can you send me correct ans.

    1:- Which is not functional testing technique?

    a. BVA
    b. Decision table
    c. Regression testing
    d. None of the above

    2:-One weakness of BVA and Equivalence partitioning is

    a. They are not effected
    b. They do not explore combinations of input circumstances
    c. They explore combinations of input circumstances
    d. None of the above

    3:- Decision table are useful in situation where

    a. An Action is taken under varying set of conditions
    b. Number of combinations of actions are taken under varying set of conditions
    c. No action is taken under varying set of conditions
    d. None of the above

    4:-BVA is based upon
    a. Single fault assumption theory
    b. Multiple fault assumption theory
    c. Both of above
    d. None of the above

    5:-”Causes” and “Effects” are related to
    a. Input and Output
    b. Output and Input
    c. Destination and Source
    d. None of the above

    6:-Which of the following tool you will use to detect Memory Leak

    a. Static Analysis
    b. Coverage Analysis
    c. Dynamic Analysis
    d. Memory Analysis

    7:- Functionality of software is tested by

    a. White Box Testing
    b. Black Box Testing
    c. Regression Testing
    d. None of the above

    8:- During Validation

    a. Process is checked
    b. Product is checked
    c. Developer’s performance is equivalent
    d. The Customer checks the product

    9:- Which of the following could be a reason for a failure?

    1. Testing fault
    2. software fault
    3. Design fault
    4. Environment fault
    5. Documentation fault
    a:- 2 is a valid reason ;1,3,4,4 are not
    b:- 1,2,3,4 are valid reasons; 5 is not
    c:- 1,2,3 are valid reasons; 4&5 are not
    d:- all of them are valid reason for failure

  20. Hi,

    Could someone assist me in providing an explanation to this question which is related to the ISTQB advanced test analyst exam:

    You are testing a client/server system with a single input screen at the client side. The client input screen accepts five inputs, each of which has four equivalence classes. These inputs are then transmitted to the server, which processes them and returns a result.
    If you want to test using the classification tree for these inputs and cover the full set of combinations, how many test sets do you need?
    a) 16
    b) 125
    c) 1024
    d) 3125

    The answer is c) 1024
    But I have no idea how they have arrived at this answer.

    Could someone shed some light on this please?

  21. 1) Order numbers on a stock control system can range between 10000 and 99999 inclusive. Which of the following inputs might be a result of designing tests for only valid equivalence classes and valid boundaries:
    a) 1000, 5000, 99999
    b) 9999, 50000, 100000
    c) 10000, 50000, 99999
    d) 10000, 99999
    e) 9999, 10000, 50000, 99999, 10000
    ——–C
    2) Which of the following is NOT a black box technique:
    a) Equivalence partitioning
    b) State transition testing
    c) Syntax testing
    d) Boundary value analysis

    3) Error guessing is best used
    a) As the first approach to deriving test cases
    b) After more formal techniques have been applied
    c) By inexperienced testers
    d) After the system has gone live
    e) Only by end users
    ——A
    4) Which is not true-The black box tester
    a. should be able to understand a functional specification or requirements document
    b. should be able to understand the source code.
    c. is highly motivated to find faults
    d. is creative to find the system’s weaknesses.
    ———–A
    5) A test design technique is
    a. a process for selecting test cases
    b. a process for determining expected outputs
    c. a way to measure the quality of software
    d. a way to measure in a test plan what has to be done
    -B
    6) Which of the following is true?
    a. Component testing should be black box, system testing should be white box.
    b. if u find a lot of bugs in testing, you should not be very confident about the quality of software
    c. the fewer bugs you find, the better your testing was
    d. the more tests you run, the more bugs you will find.
    —–B
    7) What is the important criterion in deciding what testing technique to use?
    a. how well you know a particular technique
    b. the objective of the test
    c. how appropriate the technique is for testing the application
    d. whether there is a tool to support the technique

    8) Which of the following is a black box design technique?
    a. statement testing
    b. equivalence partitioning
    c. error- guessing
    d. usability testing

    9) A program validates a numeric field as follows:
    values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected
    Which of the following input values cover all of the equivalence partitions?
    a. 10, 11, 21
    b. 3, 20, 21
    c. 3, 10, 22
    d. 10, 21, 22

    10) Using the same specifications as question 9, which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?
    a. 9,10,11,22
    b. 9,10,21,22
    c. 10,11,21,22
    d. 10,11,20,21

    11) Error guessing:
    a) supplements formal test design techniques.
    b) can only be used in component, integration and system testing.
    c) is only performed in user acceptance testing.
    d) is not repeatable and should not be used.

    12) Which of the following is NOT a white box technique?
    a) Statement testing
    b) Path testing
    c) Data flow testing
    d) State transition testing

    13) Data flow analysis studies:
    a) possible communications bottlenecks in a program.
    b) the rate of change of data values as a program executes.
    c) the use of data on paths through the code.
    d) the intrinsic complexity of the code.

    14) In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
    An employee has £4000 of salary tax free. The next £1500 is taxed at 10%
    The next £28000 is taxed at 22%
    Any further amount is taxed at 40%
    Which of these groups of numbers would fall into the same equivalence class?
    a) £4800; £14000; £28000
    b) £5200; £5500; £28000
    c) £28001; £32000; £35000
    d) £5800; £28000; £32000

    15) Test cases are designed during:
    a) test recording.
    b) test planning.
    c) test configuration.
    d) test specification.

    16) An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004
    The boundary values for testing this field are
    a. 0,1900,2004,2005
    b. 1900, 2004
    c. 1899,1900,2004,2005
    d. 1899, 1900, 1901,2003,2004,2005

    17) Boundary value testing
    a. Is the same as equivalence partitioning tests?
    b. Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes
    c. Tests combinations of input circumstances
    d. Is used in white box testing strategy

    18) When testing a grade calculation system, a tester determines that all scores from 90 to 100 will yield a grade of A, but scores below 90 will not. This analysis is known as:
    a) Equivalence partitioning
    b) Boundary value analysis
    c) Decision table
    d) Hybrid analysis

    19) Which technique can be used to achieve input and output coverage? It can be applied to human input, input via interfaces to a system, or interface parameters in integration testing.
    a) Error Guessing
    b) Boundary Value Analysis
    c) Decision Table testing
    d) Equivalence partitioning

    20) Features to be tested, approach, item pass/fail criteria and test deliverables should be specified in which document?
    a) Test case specification
    b) Test procedure specification
    c) Test plan
    d) Test design specification

    21) Which specification-based testing techniques are most closely related to each other?
    a) Decision tables and state transition testing
    b) Equivalence partitioning and state transition testing
    c) Decision tables and boundary value analysis
    d) Equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis

    22) assume postal rates for ‘light letters’ are:
    $0.25 up to 10 grams
    $0.35 up to 50 grams
    $0.45 up to 75 grams
    $0.55 up to 100 grams
    Which test inputs (in grams) would be selected using boundary value analysis?
    a) 0, 9, 19, 49, 50, 74, 75, 99, 100
    b) 10, 50, 75, 100, 250, 1000
    c) 0, 1, 10, 11, 50, 51, 75, 76, 100, 101
    d) 25, 26, 35, 36, 45, 46, 55, 56

    23) If the temperature falls below 18 degrees, the heating system is switched on. When the temperature reaches 21 degrees, the heating system is switched off. What is the minimum set of test input values to cover all valid equivalence partitions?
    a) 15, 19 and 25 degrees
    b) 17, 18, 20 and 21 degrees
    c) 18, 20 and 22 degrees
    d) 16 and 26 degrees

    24) What is a test condition?
    a) An input, expected outcome, precondition and post condition
    b) The steps to be taken to get the system to a given point
    c) Something that can be tested
    d) A specific state of the software, ex: before a test can be run

    25) What is a key characteristic of specification-based testing techniques?
    a) Tests are derived from information about how the software is constructed
    b) Tests are derived from models (formal or informal) that specify the problem to be solved by the software or its components
    c) Tests are derived based on the skills and experience of the tester
    d) Tests are derived from the extent of the coverage of structural elements of the system or components

    26) Why are both specification-based and structure-based testing techniques useful?
    a) They find different types of defect.
    b) using more techniques is always better
    c) both find the same types of defect.
    d) Because specifications tend to be unstructured

    27) Find the Equivalence class for the following test case
    Enter a number to test the validity of being accepting the numbers between 1 and
    99
    a) All numbers 99
    c) Number = 0
    d) All numbers between 1 and 99

    28) What is the relationship between equivalence partitioning and boundary
    value analysis techniques?
    a) Structural testing
    b) Opaque testing
    c) Compatibility testing
    d) All of the above

    29) Suggest an alternative for requirement traceability matrix
    a) Test Coverage matrix
    b) Average defect aging
    c) Test Effectiveness
    d) Error discovery rate

    30) The following defines the statement of what the tester is expected to accomplish or validate during testing activity
    a) Test scope
    b) Test objective
    c) Test environment
    d) None of the above

    31) One technique of Black Box testing is Equivalence Partitioning. In a program
    statement that accepts only one choice from among 10 possible choices,
    numbered 1 through 10, the middle partition would be from _____ to _____
    a) 4 to 6
    b) 0 to 10
    c) 1 to 10
    d) None of the above

    32) Test design mainly emphasizes all the following except
    a) Data planning
    b) Test procedures planning
    c) Mapping the requirements and test cases
    d) Data synchronization

    33) Deliverables of test design phase include all the following except
    a) Test data
    b) Test data plan
    c) Test summary report
    d) Test procedure plan

    34) Test data planning essentially includes
    a) Network
    b) Operational Model
    c) Boundary value analysis
    d) Test Procedure Planning

    35) Test coverage analysis is the process of
    a) Creating additional test cases to increase coverage
    b) Finding areas of program exercised by the test cases
    c) Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage, which is a
    direct measure of quality.
    d) All of the above.

    36) Branch Coverage
    a) another name for decision coverage
    b) another name for all-edges coverage
    c) another name for basic path coverage
    d) all the above

    37) The following example is a
    if (condition1 && (condition2 || function1()))
    statement1;
    else
    statement2; (Testing concepts)
    a) Decision coverage
    b) Condition coverage
    c) Statement coverage
    d) Path Coverage

    38) Test cases need to be written for
    a) invalid and unexpected conditions
    b) valid and expected conditions
    c) both a and b
    d) none of these

    39) Path coverage includes
    a) statement coverage
    b) condition coverage
    c) decision coverage
    d) none of these

    40) The benefits of glass box testing are
    a) Focused Testing, Testing coverage, control flow
    b) Data integrity, Internal boundaries, algorithm specific testing
    c) Both a and b
    d) Either a or b

    41) Find the invalid equivalence class for the following test case
    Draw a line up to the length of 4 inches
    a) Line with 1 dot-width
    b) Curve
    c) line with 4 inches
    d) line with 1 inch.

    42) Error seeding
    a) Evaluates the thoroughness with which a computer program is tested by purposely inserting errors into a supposedly correct program.
    b) Errors inserted by the developers intentionally to make the system
    malfunctioning.
    c) for identifying existing errors
    d) Both a and b

    43) Which of the following best describes the difference between clear
    box and opaque box?
    1. Clear box is structural testing, opaque box is Ad-hoc testing
    2. Clear box is done by tester, and opaque box is done by developer
    3. Opaque box is functional testing, clear box is exploratory testing
    a) 1
    b) 1 and 3
    c) 2
    d) 3

    44) What is the concept of introducing a small change to the program and having the effects of that change show up in some test?
    a) Desk checking
    b) Debugging a program
    c) A mutation error
    d) Introducing mutation

    45) How many test cases are necessary to cover all the possible sequences of statements (paths) for the following program fragment? Assume that the two conditions are independent of each other : – …………
    if (Condition 1)
    then statement 1
    else statement 2
    fi
    if (Condition 2)
    then statement 3
    fi
    …………
    a. 1 test case
    b. 3 Test Cases
    c. 4 Test Cases
    d. Not achievable

    46) Given the following code, which is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage:
    Read P
    Read Q
    IF P+Q > 100 THEN
    Print “Large”
    ENDIF
    If P > 50 THEN
    Print “P Large”
    ENDIF
    a) 1 test for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    c) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
    d) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    e) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

    47) Given the following:
    Switch PC on
    Start “outlook”
    IF outlook appears THEN
    Send an email
    Close outlook
    a) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
    b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    c) 1 test for statement coverage. 3 for branch coverage
    d) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    e) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage

    48) If a candidate is given an exam of 40 questions, should get 25 marks to pass (61%) and should get 80% for distinction, what is equivalence class?
    A. 23, 24, 25
    B. 0, 12, 25
    C. 30, 36, 39
    D. 32, 37, 40

    49) Consider the following statements:
    i. 100% statement coverage guarantees 100% branch coverage.
    ii. 100% branch coverage guarantees 100% statement coverage.
    iii. 100% branch coverage guarantees 100% decision coverage.
    iv. 100% decision coverage guarantees 100% branch coverage.
    v. 100% statement coverage guarantees 100% decision coverage.
    a) ii is True; i, iii, iv & v are False
    b) i & v are True; ii, iii & iv are False
    c) ii & iii are True; i, iv & v are False
    d) ii, iii & iv are True; i & v are False

    50) Which statement about expected outcomes is FALSE?
    a) Expected outcomes are defined by the software’s behavior
    b) Expected outcomes are derived from a specification, not from the code
    c) Expected outcomes should be predicted before a test is run
    d) Expected outcomes may include timing constraints such as response times

    51) Which of the following is not a white box testing?
    a) Random testing
    b) Data Flow testing
    c) Statement testing
    d) Syntax testing

    52) If the pseudo code below were a programming language, how many tests are required to achieve 100% statement coverage?
    1. If x=3 then
    2. Display_messageX;
    3. If y=2 then
    4. Display_messageY;
    5. Else
    6. Display_messageZ;
    a. 1
    b. 2
    c. 3
    d. 4

    53) Using the same code example as question 17, how many tests are required to achieve 100% branch/decision coverage?
    a. 1
    b. 2
    c. 3
    d. 4

    54) Which of the following technique is NOT a black box technique?
    a) Equivalence partitioning
    b) State transition testing
    c) LCSAJ
    d) Syntax testing

    55) Given the following code, which is true?
    IF A>B THEN
    C = A – B
    ELSE
    C = A + B
    ENDIF
    Read D
    IF C = D THEN
    Print “Error”
    ENDIF
    a) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
    b) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    c) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    d) 3 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    e) 3 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

    56) Consider the following:
    Pick up and read the news paper
    Look at what is on television
    If there is a program that you are interested in watching then switch the television on and watch the program
    Otherwise
    Continue reading the news paper
    If there a crossword in the news paper then try and complete the crossword
    a) SC = 1 and DC = 3
    b) SC = 1 and DC = 2
    c) SC = 2 and DC = 2
    d) SC = 2 and DC = 3

    57) The specification: an integer field shall contain values from and including 1 to and including 12 (number of the month)
    Which equivalence class partitioning is correct?
    a) Less than 1, 1 through 12, larger than 12
    b) Less than 1, 1 through 11, larger than 12
    c) Less than 0, 1 through 12, larger than 12
    d) Less than 1, 1 through 11, and above

    58) Analyze the following highly simplified procedure:
    Ask: “What type of ticket do you require, single or return?”
    IF the customer wants ‘return’
    Ask: “What rate, Standard or Cheap-day?”
    IF the customer replies ‘Cheap-day’
    Say: “That will be £11:20”
    ELSE
    Say: “That will be £19:50”
    ENDIF
    ELSE
    Say: “That will be £9:75”
    ENDIF

    Now decide the minimum number of tests that are needed to ensure that all the questions have been asked, all combinations have occurred and all replies given.
    a) 3
    b) 4
    c) 5
    d) 6

  22. 1) Order numbers on a stock control system can range between 10000 and 99999 inclusive. Which of the following inputs might be a result of designing tests for only valid equivalence classes and valid boundaries:
    a) 1000, 5000, 99999
    b) 9999, 50000, 100000
    c) 10000, 50000, 99999
    d) 10000, 99999
    e) 9999, 10000, 50000, 99999, 10000
    ——–C
    2) Which of the following is NOT a black box technique:
    a) Equivalence partitioning
    b) State transition testing
    c) Syntax testing
    d) Boundary value analysis

    3) Error guessing is best used
    a) As the first approach to deriving test cases
    b) After more formal techniques have been applied
    c) By inexperienced testers
    d) After the system has gone live
    e) Only by end users
    ——A
    4) Which is not true-The black box tester
    a. should be able to understand a functional specification or requirements document
    b. should be able to understand the source code.
    c. is highly motivated to find faults
    d. is creative to find the system’s weaknesses.
    ———–A
    5) A test design technique is
    a. a process for selecting test cases
    b. a process for determining expected outputs
    c. a way to measure the quality of software
    d. a way to measure in a test plan what has to be done
    -B
    6) Which of the following is true?
    a. Component testing should be black box, system testing should be white box.
    b. if u find a lot of bugs in testing, you should not be very confident about the quality of software
    c. the fewer bugs you find, the better your testing was
    d. the more tests you run, the more bugs you will find.
    —–B
    7) What is the important criterion in deciding what testing technique to use?
    a. how well you know a particular technique
    b. the objective of the test
    c. how appropriate the technique is for testing the application
    d. whether there is a tool to support the technique

    8) Which of the following is a black box design technique?
    a. statement testing
    b. equivalence partitioning
    c. error- guessing
    d. usability testing

    9) A program validates a numeric field as follows:
    values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected
    Which of the following input values cover all of the equivalence partitions?
    a. 10, 11, 21
    b. 3, 20, 21
    c. 3, 10, 22
    d. 10, 21, 22

    10) Using the same specifications as question 9, which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?
    a. 9,10,11,22
    b. 9,10,21,22
    c. 10,11,21,22
    d. 10,11,20,21

    11) Error guessing:
    a) supplements formal test design techniques.
    b) can only be used in component, integration and system testing.
    c) is only performed in user acceptance testing.
    d) is not repeatable and should not be used.

    12) Which of the following is NOT a white box technique?
    a) Statement testing
    b) Path testing
    c) Data flow testing
    d) State transition testing

    13) Data flow analysis studies:
    a) possible communications bottlenecks in a program.
    b) the rate of change of data values as a program executes.
    c) the use of data on paths through the code.
    d) the intrinsic complexity of the code.

    14) In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
    An employee has £4000 of salary tax free. The next £1500 is taxed at 10%
    The next £28000 is taxed at 22%
    Any further amount is taxed at 40%
    Which of these groups of numbers would fall into the same equivalence class?
    a) £4800; £14000; £28000
    b) £5200; £5500; £28000
    c) £28001; £32000; £35000
    d) £5800; £28000; £32000

    15) Test cases are designed during:
    a) test recording.
    b) test planning.
    c) test configuration.
    d) test specification.

    16) An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004
    The boundary values for testing this field are
    a. 0,1900,2004,2005
    b. 1900, 2004
    c. 1899,1900,2004,2005
    d. 1899, 1900, 1901,2003,2004,2005

    17) Boundary value testing
    a. Is the same as equivalence partitioning tests?
    b. Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes
    c. Tests combinations of input circumstances
    d. Is used in white box testing strategy

    18) When testing a grade calculation system, a tester determines that all scores from 90 to 100 will yield a grade of A, but scores below 90 will not. This analysis is known as:
    a) Equivalence partitioning
    b) Boundary value analysis
    c) Decision table
    d) Hybrid analysis

    19) Which technique can be used to achieve input and output coverage? It can be applied to human input, input via interfaces to a system, or interface parameters in integration testing.
    a) Error Guessing
    b) Boundary Value Analysis
    c) Decision Table testing
    d) Equivalence partitioning

    20) Features to be tested, approach, item pass/fail criteria and test deliverables should be specified in which document?
    a) Test case specification
    b) Test procedure specification
    c) Test plan
    d) Test design specification

    21) Which specification-based testing techniques are most closely related to each other?
    a) Decision tables and state transition testing
    b) Equivalence partitioning and state transition testing
    c) Decision tables and boundary value analysis
    d) Equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis

    22) assume postal rates for ‘light letters’ are:
    $0.25 up to 10 grams
    $0.35 up to 50 grams
    $0.45 up to 75 grams
    $0.55 up to 100 grams
    Which test inputs (in grams) would be selected using boundary value analysis?
    a) 0, 9, 19, 49, 50, 74, 75, 99, 100
    b) 10, 50, 75, 100, 250, 1000
    c) 0, 1, 10, 11, 50, 51, 75, 76, 100, 101
    d) 25, 26, 35, 36, 45, 46, 55, 56

    23) If the temperature falls below 18 degrees, the heating system is switched on. When the temperature reaches 21 degrees, the heating system is switched off. What is the minimum set of test input values to cover all valid equivalence partitions?
    a) 15, 19 and 25 degrees
    b) 17, 18, 20 and 21 degrees
    c) 18, 20 and 22 degrees
    d) 16 and 26 degrees

    24) What is a test condition?
    a) An input, expected outcome, precondition and post condition
    b) The steps to be taken to get the system to a given point
    c) Something that can be tested
    d) A specific state of the software, ex: before a test can be run

    25) What is a key characteristic of specification-based testing techniques?
    a) Tests are derived from information about how the software is constructed
    b) Tests are derived from models (formal or informal) that specify the problem to be solved by the software or its components
    c) Tests are derived based on the skills and experience of the tester
    d) Tests are derived from the extent of the coverage of structural elements of the system or components

    26) Why are both specification-based and structure-based testing techniques useful?
    a) They find different types of defect.
    b) using more techniques is always better
    c) both find the same types of defect.
    d) Because specifications tend to be unstructured

    27) Find the Equivalence class for the following test case
    Enter a number to test the validity of being accepting the numbers between 1 and
    99
    a) All numbers 99
    c) Number = 0
    d) All numbers between 1 and 99

    28) What is the relationship between equivalence partitioning and boundary
    value analysis techniques?
    a) Structural testing
    b) Opaque testing
    c) Compatibility testing
    d) All of the above

    29) Suggest an alternative for requirement traceability matrix
    a) Test Coverage matrix
    b) Average defect aging
    c) Test Effectiveness
    d) Error discovery rate

    30) The following defines the statement of what the tester is expected to accomplish or validate during testing activity
    a) Test scope
    b) Test objective
    c) Test environment
    d) None of the above

    31) One technique of Black Box testing is Equivalence Partitioning. In a program
    statement that accepts only one choice from among 10 possible choices,
    numbered 1 through 10, the middle partition would be from _____ to _____
    a) 4 to 6
    b) 0 to 10
    c) 1 to 10
    d) None of the above

    32) Test design mainly emphasizes all the following except
    a) Data planning
    b) Test procedures planning
    c) Mapping the requirements and test cases
    d) Data synchronization

    33) Deliverables of test design phase include all the following except
    a) Test data
    b) Test data plan
    c) Test summary report
    d) Test procedure plan

    34) Test data planning essentially includes
    a) Network
    b) Operational Model
    c) Boundary value analysis
    d) Test Procedure Planning

    35) Test coverage analysis is the process of
    a) Creating additional test cases to increase coverage
    b) Finding areas of program exercised by the test cases
    c) Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage, which is a
    direct measure of quality.
    d) All of the above.

    36) Branch Coverage
    a) another name for decision coverage
    b) another name for all-edges coverage
    c) another name for basic path coverage
    d) all the above

    37) The following example is a
    if (condition1 && (condition2 || function1()))
    statement1;
    else
    statement2; (Testing concepts)
    a) Decision coverage
    b) Condition coverage
    c) Statement coverage
    d) Path Coverage

    38) Test cases need to be written for
    a) invalid and unexpected conditions
    b) valid and expected conditions
    c) both a and b
    d) none of these

    39) Path coverage includes
    a) statement coverage
    b) condition coverage
    c) decision coverage
    d) none of these

    40) The benefits of glass box testing are
    a) Focused Testing, Testing coverage, control flow
    b) Data integrity, Internal boundaries, algorithm specific testing
    c) Both a and b
    d) Either a or b

    41) Find the invalid equivalence class for the following test case
    Draw a line up to the length of 4 inches
    a) Line with 1 dot-width
    b) Curve
    c) line with 4 inches
    d) line with 1 inch.

    42) Error seeding
    a) Evaluates the thoroughness with which a computer program is tested by purposely inserting errors into a supposedly correct program.
    b) Errors inserted by the developers intentionally to make the system
    malfunctioning.
    c) for identifying existing errors
    d) Both a and b

    43) Which of the following best describes the difference between clear
    box and opaque box?
    1. Clear box is structural testing, opaque box is Ad-hoc testing
    2. Clear box is done by tester, and opaque box is done by developer
    3. Opaque box is functional testing, clear box is exploratory testing
    a) 1
    b) 1 and 3
    c) 2
    d) 3

    44) What is the concept of introducing a small change to the program and having the effects of that change show up in some test?
    a) Desk checking
    b) Debugging a program
    c) A mutation error
    d) Introducing mutation

    45) How many test cases are necessary to cover all the possible sequences of statements (paths) for the following program fragment? Assume that the two conditions are independent of each other : – …………
    if (Condition 1)
    then statement 1
    else statement 2
    fi
    if (Condition 2)
    then statement 3
    fi
    …………
    a. 1 test case
    b. 3 Test Cases
    c. 4 Test Cases
    d. Not achievable

    46) Given the following code, which is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage:
    Read P
    Read Q
    IF P+Q > 100 THEN
    Print “Large”
    ENDIF
    If P > 50 THEN
    Print “P Large”
    ENDIF
    a) 1 test for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    c) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
    d) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    e) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

    47) Given the following:
    Switch PC on
    Start “outlook”
    IF outlook appears THEN
    Send an email
    Close outlook
    a) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
    b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    c) 1 test for statement coverage. 3 for branch coverage
    d) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    e) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage

    48) If a candidate is given an exam of 40 questions, should get 25 marks to pass (61%) and should get 80% for distinction, what is equivalence class?
    A. 23, 24, 25
    B. 0, 12, 25
    C. 30, 36, 39
    D. 32, 37, 40

    49) Consider the following statements:
    i. 100% statement coverage guarantees 100% branch coverage.
    ii. 100% branch coverage guarantees 100% statement coverage.
    iii. 100% branch coverage guarantees 100% decision coverage.
    iv. 100% decision coverage guarantees 100% branch coverage.
    v. 100% statement coverage guarantees 100% decision coverage.
    a) ii is True; i, iii, iv & v are False
    b) i & v are True; ii, iii & iv are False
    c) ii & iii are True; i, iv & v are False
    d) ii, iii & iv are True; i & v are False

    50) Which statement about expected outcomes is FALSE?
    a) Expected outcomes are defined by the software’s behavior
    b) Expected outcomes are derived from a specification, not from the code
    c) Expected outcomes should be predicted before a test is run
    d) Expected outcomes may include timing constraints such as response times

    51) Which of the following is not a white box testing?
    a) Random testing
    b) Data Flow testing
    c) Statement testing
    d) Syntax testing

    52) If the pseudo code below were a programming language, how many tests are required to achieve 100% statement coverage?
    1. If x=3 then
    2. Display_messageX;
    3. If y=2 then
    4. Display_messageY;
    5. Else
    6. Display_messageZ;
    a. 1
    b. 2
    c. 3
    d. 4

    53) Using the same code example as question 17, how many tests are required to achieve 100% branch/decision coverage?
    a. 1
    b. 2
    c. 3
    d. 4

    54) Which of the following technique is NOT a black box technique?
    a) Equivalence partitioning
    b) State transition testing
    c) LCSAJ
    d) Syntax testing

    55) Given the following code, which is true?
    IF A>B THEN
    C = A – B
    ELSE
    C = A + B
    ENDIF
    Read D
    IF C = D THEN
    Print “Error”
    ENDIF
    a) 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage
    b) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage
    c) 2 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    d) 3 tests for statement coverage, 3 for branch coverage
    e) 3 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage

    56) Consider the following:
    Pick up and read the news paper
    Look at what is on television
    If there is a program that you are interested in watching then switch the television on and watch the program
    Otherwise
    Continue reading the news paper
    If there a crossword in the news paper then try and complete the crossword
    a) SC = 1 and DC = 3
    b) SC = 1 and DC = 2
    c) SC = 2 and DC = 2
    d) SC = 2 and DC = 3

    57) The specification: an integer field shall contain values from and including 1 to and including 12 (number of the month)
    Which equivalence class partitioning is correct?
    a) Less than 1, 1 through 12, larger than 12
    b) Less than 1, 1 through 11, larger than 12
    c) Less than 0, 1 through 12, larger than 12
    d) Less than 1, 1 through 11, and above

    58) Analyze the following highly simplified procedure:
    Ask: “What type of ticket do you require, single or return?”
    IF the customer wants ‘return’
    Ask: “What rate, Standard or Cheap-day?”
    IF the customer replies ‘Cheap-day’
    Say: “That will be £11:20”
    ELSE
    Say: “That will be £19:50”
    ENDIF
    ELSE
    Say: “That will be £9:75”
    ENDIF

    Now decide the minimum number of tests that are needed to ensure that all the questions have been asked, all combinations have occurred and all replies given.
    a) 3
    b) 4
    c) 5
    d) 6

  23. Hi Sandhya,

    Many thanks for your explanations. I am going to have ISTQB foundation level exam on 25th Nov, 2013. Can you please send out material and 2013 dumps for ISTQB Foundation Level exam to aparna.nov03@gmail.com . Many said none of the questions appeared from ISTQB dump in foundation level exam in main exam, sounds annoying. This certification is very important for me to get job.
    Can u plz send me the major topics which i must cover before ISTQB (Foundation lavel) exam.
    Could you please kindly provide explanation for below answers.
    1. When a new testing tool is purchased, it should be used first by:
    A. A small team to establish the best way to use the tool
    B. Everyone who may eventually have some use for the tool
    C. The independent testing team
    D. The managers to see what projects it should be used in
    E. The vendor contractor to write the initial scripts
    Note:: I know that when a tool is purchased first it will be tested on pilot project , so I guess A is right, but many said B is right answer. Please tell me the right option.
    2. Verification involves which of the following :-

    i. Helps to check the Quality of the built product
    ii. Helps to check that we have built the right product.
    iii. Helps in developing the product
    iv. Monitoring tool wastage and obsoleteness.

    A. Options i,ii,iii,iv are true.
    B. i is true and ii,iii,iv are false
    C. i,ii,iii are true and iv is false
    D. ii is true and i,iii,iv are false.
    3. Verification is:
    A. Checking that we are building the right system
    B. Checking that we are building the system right
    C. Performed by an independent test team
    D. Making sure that it is what the user really wants
    Note:: As you said, I strongly believe for Q2 ans is B. i is true and ii,iii,iv are false
    for Q3 ans is B. Checking that we are building the system right

    can you reply me if I am wrong?

    I have great confusion with decision coverage, Cyclomatic Complexity ?.

    As far as I know,
    Coverage::
    statement coverage , all nodes should be covered;
    branch coverage , all links should be covered;
    Path coverage,every possible link needs to be covered.
    For example ,
    4) If(x>y) x=x+1;
    else y=y+1;
    while(x>y)
    {
    y=x*y; x=x+1;
    }

    A. 1
    B. 2
    C. 3
    D. 4
    Explanation:: consider nodes as statements and conditions, links as edges between them
    1) If x>y true, while (x>y) true,
    2) If x>y false, while (x>y) true,
    From 1 & 2 , all nodes will be covered so statement coverage=2
    For branch coverage, one more test case need to be added, it can be either If x>y true, while (x>y) false or If x>y false, while (x>y) false,
    Totally branch coverage =3
    path coverage =4
    1) If x>y true, while (x>y) true,
    2) If x>y false, while (x>y) true,
    3) If x>y true, while (x>y) false
    4) If x>y false, while (x>y) false

    Doubt:: Some questions pointed out branch/decision covereage ? does branch and decision coverages comes under same concepts? Sometimes question were given considering conditions are independent what does it mean? For example,
    5) How many test cases are necessary to cover all the possible sequences of statements (paths) for the following program fragment? Assume that the two conditions are independent of each other:
    if (Condition 1) then statement 1 else statement 2 fi
    if (Condition 2)
    then statement 3 fi

    A. 2 Test Cases
    B. 3 Test Cases
    C. 4 Test Cases
    D. Not achievable
    if I follow my procedure, i guess ans is C to cover all paths but what is the use for Assume that the two conditions are independent of each other? few of sample papers given answer as A

    Cyclomatic Complexity::
    Formula : L-N+2P , since no disconnected graphs exists in the questions simple formula , L-N+ no of conditions,
    Given the Following program
    IF X = Z THEN Statement 2;
    END
    McCabe’s Cyclomatic Complexity is :
    a. 2
    b. 3
    c. 4
    d. 5
    explanation::

    Ans: 7-6 + 2 =3 , B
    But I can’t able to answer below question
    Given the Following program
    IF X = Z
    THEN Statement 2;
    END
    McCabe’s Cyclomatic Complexity is :

    A. 2
    B. 3
    C. 4
    D. 5
    Simple formula: no of conditions + 1,
    if I consider = as two conditions ans is 2+1=3, B

    Thank you in advance your great help.

  24. please check Cyclomatic Complexity from here not from above post

    Formula : L-N+2P , since no disconnected graphs exists in the questions simple formula , L-N+ no of conditions,
    Given the Following program
    IF X = Z THEN Statement 2;
    END
    McCabe’s Cyclomatic Complexity is :
    a. 2
    b. 3
    c. 4
    d. 5

    explanation::
    1)if c1 true , print s1
    2)else if c1 false, c2 true , print s2
    3)c1 false, c2 fasle
    4)end if
    5)end

    can i consider add end if, if not provided in question?

    Ans: 7-6 + 2 =3 , B

    But I can’t able to answer below question

    Given the Following program
    IF X = Z
    THEN Statement 2;
    END
    McCabe’s Cyclomatic Complexity is :

    A. 2
    B. 3
    C. 4
    D. 5

    Simple formula: no of conditions + 1,
    if I consider = as two conditions ans is 2+1=3, B

    am i right?

    thank you

  25. hi all, in ISTQB Sample Question Paper Dump #2

    1) An input field takes the year of birth between 1900 and 2004.
    The boundary values for testing this field are:
    a. 0,1900,2004,2005
    b. 1900, 2004
    c. 1899,1900,2004,2005
    d. 1899, 1900, 1901,2003,2004,2005

    but the answer given is option c, while according to me answer should be option d.
    BV = LV-1, LV, LV+1, UV-1, UV, UV+1.
    so option d should be correct.

    Kindly suggest am i correct. And if i am wrong then why?

  26. A program validates a numeric field as follows: values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected. Which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?

    a. 9,10,11,22
    b. 9,10,21,22
    c. 10,11,21,22
    d. 10,11,20,21

    i have got the same question but option where of only 3 valus like:
    a. 9,10,22
    b. 9,21,22
    c. 10,21,22
    d,9,10,11

    What should be the answer

  27. Can somebody help me understand Q 7: Class III : £5501 to £33500 => 22 % tax
    Class IV : £33501 and above => 40 % tax
    Where the answer is D
    £4000; £4200; £5600

  28. can you guys help me out with this query?
    If you take the bus before 8:30 am or in the afternoon after 3:00 pm until 6:30 pm (Rush Hour) you pay full fare. A saver ticket is available for the bus between 8:30am and 3pm, and after 6:30 pm.

    What are the valid and invalid partitions – show a table with all of the different partitions and the different ticket types.

  29. Hi,

    could you please help me, i really need some examples with explanation like this page, but for Decision Table Testing.

    Thank you in advance,

  30. Derive equivalence classes for the input variables listed below.
    1.int pen_inventory; Current inventory level or writing pens.
    2.string planet_name; Planet name.
    3.operating_system={“OS X”. “Windows XP”, “Windows 200”, “Unix”, “Linux”, “Xinu”, “VxWorks”}; Name of an operating system.
    4.printer_class=set printer_name;
    printer_class p; Set of printer names.
    5.int name [1.10]; An array of at most 10 integers.
    Need answer ASAP please.

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