ISTQB Exam Questions on Equivalence partitioning and Boundary Value Analysis

It's important that all testers should be able to write test cases based on Equivalence partitioning and Boundary value analysis. Taking this into consideration ISTQB is having significant importance for this topic in ISTQB Foundation level Certificate exam. Good practice and logical thinking can make it very easy to solve these questions.

What is Equivalence partitioning?
Equivalence partitioning is a method for deriving test cases. In this method, equivalence classes (for input values) are identified such that each member of the class causes the same kind of processing and output to occur. The values at the extremes (start/end values or lower/upper-end values) of such class are known as Boundary values. Analyzing the behaviour of a system using such values is called Boundary value analysis (BVA).

Here are few sample questions for practice from ISTQB exam papers on Equivalence partitioning and BVA. (Ordered: Simple to little complex)

Question 1
One of the fields on a form contains a text box which accepts numeric values in the range of 18 to 25. Identify the invalid Equivalence class.

a)    17
b)    19
c)    24
d)    21

Solution
The text box accepts numeric values in the range 18 to 25 (18 and 25 are also part of the class). So this class becomes our valid class. But the question is to identify invalid equivalence class. The classes will be as follows:
Class I: values < 18   => invalid class
Class II: 18 to 25       => valid class
Class III: values > 25 => invalid class

17 fall under invalid class. 19, 24 and 21 fall under valid class. So answer is ‘A’

Question 2
In an Examination, a candidate has to score a minimum of 24 marks in order to clear the exam. The maximum that he can score is 40 marks.  Identify the Valid Equivalence values if the student clears the exam.

a)    22,23,26
b)    21,39,40
c)    29,30,31
d)    0,15,22

Solution
The classes will be as follows:
Class I: values < 24   => invalid class
Class II: 24 to 40       => valid class
Class III: values > 40 => invalid class

We have to identify Valid Equivalence values. Valid Equivalence values will be there in a Valid Equivalence class. All the values should be in Class II. So answer is ‘C’

Question 3
One of the fields on a form contains a text box which accepts alphanumeric values. Identify the Valid Equivalence class
a)    BOOK
b)    Book
c)    Boo01k
d)    Book

Solution
Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabets and numbers. Hence we have to choose an option which has both of these. A valid equivalence class will consist of both alphabets and numbers. Option ‘c’ contains both alphabets and numbers. So answer is ‘C’

Question 4
The Switch is switched off once the temperature falls below 18 and then it is turned on when the temperature is more than 21. When the temperature is more than 21. Identify the Equivalence values which belong to the same class.

a)    12,16,22
b)    24,27,17
c)    22,23,24
d)    14,15,19

Solution
We have to choose values from the same class (it can be a valid or invalid class). The classes will be as follows:

Class I: less than 18 (switch turned off)
Class II: 18 to 21
Class III: above 21 (switch turned on)

Only in Option ‘c’, all values are from one class. Hence the answer is ‘C’. (Please note that the question does not talk about valid or invalid classes. It is only about values in same class)

Question 5
A program validates a numeric field as follows: values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected. Which of the following input values cover all of the equivalence partitions?

a. 10,11,21
b. 3,20,21
c. 3,10,22
d. 10,21,22

Solution
We have to select values which fall in all the equivalence class (valid and invalid both). The classes will be as follows:

Class I: values <= 9   => invalid class
Class II: 10 to 21       => valid class
Class III: values >= 22 => invalid class

All the values from option ‘c’ fall under all different equivalence class. So the answer is ‘C’.

Question 6
A program validates a numeric field as follows: values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected. Which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?

a. 9,10,11,22
b. 9,10,21,22
c. 10,11,21,22
d. 10,11,20,21

Solution
We have already come up with the classes as shown in question 5. The boundaries can be identified as 9, 10, 21, and 22. These four values are in option ‘b’. So answer is ‘B’

Question 7
In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax-free.
The next £1500 is taxed at 10%.
The next £28000 after that is taxed at 22%.
Any further amount is taxed at 40%.

To the nearest whole pound, which of these groups of numbers fall into three DIFFERENT equivalence classes?
a)    £4000; £5000; £5500
b)    £32001; £34000; £36500
c)    £28000; £28001; £32001
d)    £4000; £4200; £5600

Solution
The classes will be as follows:
Class I   : 0 to £4000          => no tax
Class II  : £4001 to £5500   => 10 % tax
Class III : £5501 to £33500 => 22 % tax
Class IV : £33501 and above => 40 % tax

Select the values which fall in three different equivalence classes. Option ‘d’ has values from three different equivalence classes. So the answer is ‘D’.

Question 8
In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax-free.
The next £1500 is taxed at 10%.
The next £28000 after that is taxed at 22%.
Any further amount is taxed at 40%.

To the nearest whole pound, which of these is a valid Boundary Value Analysis test case?
a)    £28000
b)    £33501
c)    £32001
d)    £1500

Solution
The classes are already divided in question # 7. We have to select a value which is a boundary value (start/end value). 33501 is a boundary value. So the answer is ‘B’.

Question 9
Given the following specification, which of the following values for age are in the SAME equivalence partition?

If you are less than 18, you are too young to be insured.
Between 18 and 30 inclusive, you will receive a 20% discount.
Anyone over 30 is not eligible for a discount.
a)    17, 18, 19
b)    29, 30, 31
c)    18, 29, 30
d)    17, 29, 31

Solution
The classes will be as follows:
Class I: age < 18       => not insured
Class II: age 18 to 30 => 20 % discount
Class III: age > 30     => no discount

Here we cannot determine if the above classes are valid or invalid, as nothing is mentioned in the question. (But according to our guess we can say I and II are valid and III is invalid. But this is not required here.) We have to select values which are in SAME equivalence partition. Values from option ‘c’ fall in the same partition. So the answer is ‘C’.

These are few sample questions for practice from ISTQB papers. We will continue to add more ISTQB question papers with answers in coming posts.

About the Author:
This is a guest article by “N. Sandhya Rani”. She is having around 4 years of experience in software testing mostly in manual testing. She is helping many aspirant software testers to clear the ISTQB testing certification exam.

Put your questions related to ISTQB exam in the comment section below.

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188 thoughts on “ISTQB Exam Questions on Equivalence partitioning and Boundary Value Analysis”

  1. hi.
    can anyone leave the answers here or to my mail for the first uploaded questions from 1 – 58..thanking u guys.

  2. helloo guys can anyone provide answers for these questions to my mail id …plzz…atleast from 1- 58 it wud really help me..thanks in advance..

  3. hi

    i want to know about Decision table testing and also how to solve Decision table testing questions.Please send me sample questions with detail explaination of the answer.

    Thanks in Advance

    Thanks & Regards
    Manasa

  4. 44) What is the concept of introducing a small change to the program and having the effects of that change show up in some test?
    a) Desk checking
    b) Debugging a program
    c) A mutation error
    d) Introducing mutation
    ans is c or d??Please do let me know
    Thanks in advance

  5. Hi Mallikarjun,

    Am still waiting for the answers for the questions you posted on on 07.27.09 at 12:26 pm to validate my answers. Please send them.

    Thanks a ton

  6. hello can u answer for the question
    1.What is stub in software testing ?

    A dummy sub program

    A test case,which fails regularly

    A defect log report

    A defect ,which is not closed

    2. What does 100% code coverage mean while testing software ?

    Basic flow of software is tested

    All critical test cases are tested

    Each line of code is executed at least once while testing .

    No while and If loops are tested

    3. What does GPF in Windows95 stands for ?

    Great Performance Format

    General Performance Error

    General Protection Fault

    Group Performance Frequency

    4. Which of the following best fits for testing boundary values ?

    Age test box accepts age between 10-20 (both inclusive)

    Name text box can have any value

    Date text box should have data in dd/mm/yyyy format

    Employee Grade text box can have one of the following values L1,M1,E1

    5. string somestring;

    Which of the following choices will convert a standard C++ string object “somestring” to a C string

    somestring.c_str()

    &somestring[1]

    Copy.somestring()

    Std::cstring(something)

    6. Which of the following best suites load scenario ?

    100 users chatting in a chat application

    Testing for compulsory fields in a employee details form

    Checking for date format in date of birth field

    7. What is the function of the modulus operator in most languages ?

    Sets a system environmental value to either base 10 ,base 8 or base 16

    Returns the remainder after dividing one number by another

    Returns the first argument raised to the second argument power

    Prints out the actual code written to standard output rather than executing the code

  7. 1>which are major test documents?
    2>for research project which is the best development life cycle model?
    3>Software design involves?
    a. identification of algorithm. b. identification of data structure. c. designing of user interface. d. all of above
    4>who decided what to be corrected after the result of independent testing are reported?
    5>which is the new module that has to be added to the system to make regression testing as a normal part of integration testing ?
    6>test plan talks about ?
    a.schedules. b. features to b testted. c. design details. d. coading. e. resources
    7> where can ISO 9000 Quality management be applied?
    8>As a QC professional you will be doing what?
    a. Reviews. b. causal analysys. c. Statistical process control. d. defect prevention
    9> how customers perspective view of quality measured?
    10> in change control procedure who approves major changes.

  8. I want to clarify one thing, in the equivalence patitioning questions, sometimes the range is given as ex. between 10 and 20, and sometimes between 10 and 20 inclusive…… But in both the cases they consider including 10 and 20 in the example. Then, why to specify inclusive in one case?

  9. Hi MahendraKumar,

    Answer of your 1st question is;
    A stub is a dummy program.

    answer of your 2nd ques. is:

    100% code coverage means each line of code is executed atleast once.

    Rock!

  10. hi

    these question and answer are very useful. i like your method to explain every answer . if u have more sample papers with explanation on answers please send me link . can u tell me that while giving that exam will they allow paper and pen for rough work ?

    thank u

  11. Hello Madam,
    I am Mahipal.I am working a small sw company as tester.i joined past 2 months.i want to write QA certification exam please guide me..

  12. An electronic program guide service downloads TV listing data once setup data has been downloaded either with the digital tuner, or the analog tuner (if present), or an external receiver (if defined): The following tests have been executed for the control flow diagram above:

    Test1: No setup data could be found, first with the digital tuner, then with the analog tuner, and finally with an external receiver.

    Test2: Setup and TV listing data has been downloaded with the digital tuner.
    Test3: Setup and TV listing data has been downloaded with the analog tuner.

    What is the decision coverage of these three tests?

    a. 100%
    b. 51%
    c. 70%
    d. 0%

    Any answer 4 this question?

  13. Hello Sandhya,

    Today i passed the ISTQB exam. all the sample paper where very helpful thank you very much for your help. It will be very gr8 if you can add some questions related to case studies, b,coz in this exam there where lots of questions which where like that.
    Thanks a lot for your help again.

  14. Hello,
    I am quite new to SQA and looking for some guidance to solve the following problem. I am pretty familiar with EPC and BVA but having trouble to choose the rite technique for the following scenario. Please help me.

    Suppose there is a method which is used for auto insurance policies renew according to the following rules:
    0 claim, age 22: raise by $25
    1 claim, age 22: raise by $50
    2, 3 or 4 claims, age 22: raise by $100
    More than 5 claims: cancel policy
    Between ECP and BVA, which test strategy you will use for this test? How to show the details to select the test cases based on the either ECP or BVA.

    Thanks

  15. More clear scenario,

    Suppose there is a method which is used for auto insurance policies renew according to the following rules:
    0 claim, age less than or equal to 22: raise by $50;
    0 claim, age greater than 22: raise by $25
    1 claim, age less than or equal to 22: raise by $100;
    1 claim, age greater than 22: raise by $50
    2, 3 or 4 claims, age less than or equal to 22: raise by $200;
    2, 3 or 4 claims, age greater than 22: raise by $100
    More than 5 claims: cancel policy
    Between ECP and BVA, which test strategy you will use for this test? How to show the details to select the test cases based on the either ECP or BVA.

  16. I got problem with some questions. Can anyone help me to understand?

    1. Cyclomatic complexity is used to calculate-
    a>number of independent paths in the basis set of a program.
    b>number of binary decisiobs+1

    The answer is given b. But why it should not be a?

    2. Which of the following is not included in Test plan-
    a>Suspension criteria
    b>Expected result

    Given answer is b. Why it not a?

    3.Which of the following statements is true of static analysis:

    a>Static analysis can find faults that are hard to find with dynamic testing.
    b>Compiling code is not a form of static analysis.

    ANswer is b. But why a is incorrect?

  17. hi
    i am having one doubt
    in the title field ,the valid inputs are mr,miss and ms…
    hw to get the equivalent partition
    1)mr,miss,ms;other value
    2)any one of mr;miss;ms,other value,novalue
    3)any one of mr;miss;ms,other value
    4)mr,miss,ms,novalue,other value

  18. COuld u please anyone answe for this question with the reason
    A project that is in the implementation phase is six weeks behind schedule. The delivery date for the product is four months away. The project is not allowed to slip the delivery date or compromise on the quality standards established for this product. Which of the following actions would bring this project back on schedule?

    A. Eliminate some of the requirements that have not yet been implemented.
    B. Add more engineers to the project to make up for lost work.
    C. Ask the current developers to work overtime until the lost work is recovered.
    D. Hire more software quality assurance personnel.

  19. i want to give istqb foundation exme asap (2012)so if any body have sample of Q&A and syllabus or guide please help me

    Thanks & Regards
    Sangita das

  20. I want to give ISTQB exam ASAP. Kindly guide me from where i can get the dumps and study material to prepare in a best manner.

    Thanks In Advance.

  21. An electronic program guide service downloads TV listing data once setup data has been downloaded either with the digital tuner, or the analog tuner (if present), or an external receiver (if defined): The following tests have been executed for the control flow diagram above:

    Test1: No setup data could be found, first with the digital tuner, then with the analog tuner, and finally with an external receiver.

    Test2: Setup and TV listing data has been downloaded with the digital tuner.
    Test3: Setup and TV listing data has been downloaded with the analog tuner.

    What is the decision coverage of these three tests?

    a. 100%
    b. 51%
    c. 70%
    d. 0%

    What wud b d rt answer

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