Entries Tagged 'Quality Assurance' ↓

Does Quality Assurance Remove Need for Quality Control?

This is a guest post by Meenal Balajiwale.

“If QA (Quality Assurance) is done then why do we need to perform QC (Quality Control)?”, This thought may come to our minds at times and it seems to be a valid point too.  This means, if we have followed all the pre-defined processes, policies & standards correctly and completely then why do we need to perform a round of QC?

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Types of Risks in Software Projects

Are you developing any Test plan or test strategy for your project? Have you addressed all risks properly in your test plan or test strategy?

As testing is the last part of the project, it’s always under pressure and time constraint. To save time and money you should be able to prioritize your testing work. How will prioritize testing work? For this, you should be able to judge more important and less important testing work. How will you decide which work is more or less important? Here comes need of risk-based testing.

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What is Regression Testing? Regression Testing Tools and Best Practices

What is Regression Testing?

Regression means retesting the unchanged parts of the application. Regression Testing is the one in which test cases are re-executed in order to check whether the previous functionality of the application is working fine and the new changes have not introduced any new bugs. This test can be performed on a new build when there is a significant change in the original functionality that too even in a single bug fix.

This is the method of verification. Verifying that the bugs are fixed and the newly added features have not created any problem in the previous working version of the software.

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What are the Quality attributes?

First, in brief, know what is Quality? Quality can be defined in a different manner. The quality definition may differ from person to person. But finally, there should be some standards. So Quality can be defined as

  • Degree of excellence – Oxford dictionary
  • Fitness for purpose – Edward Deming
  • Best for the customer’s use and selling price – Feigenbaum
  • The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs – ISO

How a Product developer will define quality – The product which meets the customer requirements.
How Customer will define Quality – Required functionality is provided with user friendly manner.

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What is SEI? CMM? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help?

  • SEI = ‘Software Engineering Institute’ at Carnegie-Mellon University; initiated by the U.S. Defense Department to help improve software development processes.
  • CMM = ‘Capability Maturity Model’, developed by the SEI. It’s a model of 5 levels of organizational ‘maturity’ that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.S. Defense Department contractors. However, many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization, and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Organizations can receive CMM ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.

Level 1 – characterized by chaos, periodic panics, and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Few if any processes in place; successes may not be repeatable.

Level 2 – software project tracking, requirements management, realistic planning, and configuration management processes are in place; successful practices can be repeated.

Level 3 – standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization; a Software Engineering Process Group is in place to oversee software processes, and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.

Level 4 – metrics are used to track productivity, processes, and products. Project performance is predictable, and quality is consistently high.

Level 5 – the focus is on continuous process improvement. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.

  • ISO = ‘International Organization for Standards’ – The ISO 9001, 9002, and 9003 standards concern quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors, and they apply to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations, not just software. The most comprehensive are 9001, and this is the one most often used by software development organizations. It covers documentation, design, development, production, testing, installation, servicing, and other processes. ISO 9000-3 (not the same as 9003) is a guideline for applying ISO 9001 to software development organizations. The U.S. version of the ISO 9000 series standards is exactly the same as the international version and is called the ANSI/ASQ Q9000 series. The U.S. version can be purchased directly from the ASQ (American Society for Quality) or the ANSI organizations. To be ISO 9001 certified, a third-party auditor assesses an organization, and certification is typically good for about 3 years, after which a complete reassessment is required. Note that ISO 9000 certification does not necessarily indicate quality products – it indicates only that documented processes are followed.
  • IEEE = ‘Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ – among other things, creates standards such as ‘IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation’ (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829), ‘IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008), ‘IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans’ (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730), and others.
  • ANSI = ‘American National Standards Institute’, the primary industrial standards body in the U.S.; publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).